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37 Cards in this Set

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Fungi are ____ but do not ingest their food.
heterotrophs
What do fungi secrete into the environment? and what does it do
exoenzymes, they break down complex food molecules. The fungi absorbs the remaining small compounds
What are some of the diverse lifestyles that fungi exhibit? list 3
decomposer, parasites, mutualistic symbiont.
The morphology of multicellular fungi...
enhances their ability to absorb nutrients from their surroundings
fungi consist of
mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption
Fungi cell walls are made of?
chitin
Some fungi have hyphae that?
all cell to cell movement of materials
coenocytic fungi
lack septa
exoenzymes
An enzyme, such as a digestive enzyme, that functions outside the cell from which it originates.
mycelia
Mass of fine branching threads that make up the vegetative part of a fungus that produces a mushroom or toadstool as a fruiting body.
chitin
A tough, protective, semitransparent substance, primarily a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, forming the principal component of arthropod exoskeletons and the cell walls of certain fungi.
septa
A thin partition or membrane that divides two cavities or soft masses of tissue in an organism
coenocytic fungi
A multinucleate cytoplasmic mass enclosed by a single cell wall, as in slime molds and certain fungi and algae.
mycorrhizae
are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
fungi propagate themselves by?
producing large quantities of spores or asexually
plasmogamy
is a stage in the sexual reproduction of fungi. In this stage, the cytoplasm of two parent mycelia fuse together without the fusion of nuclei, as occurs in higher terrestrial fungi. After plasmogamy occurs, the secondary mycelium forms. The secondary mycelium consists of dikaryotic cells, one nucleus from each of the parent mycelia.
karyogamy
The coming together and fusing of cell nuclei, as in fertilization.
heterokaryotic
A cell having two or more genetically different nuclei.
The fungi sexual life cycle involves?
cell fusion-plasmogamy, nuclear fusion-karyogamy, and an intervening heterokarytoic stage
Imperfect fungi
are fungi that do not have a sexual stage, they reproduce asexually.
origin of fungi
-one of the first colonizers of land(probably as symbiont with early land plants)
-molecular evidence supports hypothesis that fungi and animals diverged from a common ancestor
-oldest fossil is about 460 million years
fungal phyla, name them...
Phylum Chytridiomycota
Phylum Zygomycota
Phylum Ascomycota-Sac
FungiPhylum Basidiomycota
describe zygomycota fungi
include fast growing parasities and commensal symbionts
are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia
What is special about Pilobolus fungi and what phylum is it in?
it aims their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources, zygomycetes
zygosporangia
-are resisant to freezing and drying
-are capable of persisting through unfavorable conditions
-can udergo meiosis when conditions improve
glomeromycetes
for a distinct type of endomycorrhizae called arbuscular mycorrhizae
-90% of all plants form mycorrhizae with them
mycorrhizae
association between a fungus and the roots of a plant.[1] In a mycorrhizal association the fungus may colonize the roots of a host plant either intracellularly or extracellularly.
describe ascomycota fungi
-are found in a variety of marine, freshwater,and terrestrial habitats
-are defined by the production of sexual spores in saclike asci
-vary in size and complexity, from unicelluar to elabrate cup fungi and morels
-reproduce sexually and asexually
asci
is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.
ascocarps
is the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete fungus. It consists of very tightly interwoven hyphae and may contain millions of asci, each of which contains typically eight ascospores. Ascocarps are most commonly bowl-shaped, but may take on a number of other designs.
describe basidiomycota
-include mushrooms and shelf fungi
-defined by a clublike structure called a basidium with a transeint diploid stage in the life cycle
basidium
is a microscopic, spore-producing structure found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota.
what type of fungi are in fairy rings?
bascyomycota
describe fungi and animal symbiontism
-some fungi share their digestive services with some animals
-help break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing animals
-many species of ants and termites take advantage of the digestive power of fungi by raising them in "farms"
what three types of lichens are there?
fructicose(shrub like)
follose(leaf like-
crustose(crust like)
30% of fungi are ____ found on ____
parasities found on plants
what are some uses humans have for fungi?
food and antibotics