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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which protists were the first to have mitochondria?
EUGLENOIDS
Which protists were responsible for "red tides?"
DINOFLAGELLATES
What group of protists is considered the direct ancestor of plants?
CHOLOROPHYTA
What group of protists is considered the direct ancestor of all animals?
CHOANOFLAGELLIDA
What group of protists is used as indicators of oil and geological markers? These protists resemble tiny snails.
FORAMINIFERA
What are some statements of support for endosymbiosis?
-respiration proteins found in folds of mitochondria membrane
-size of organelles similar to size of prokaryotes
What characteristic unites all protists?
not fungi, plant, or animal
What does the protist form during times when the environment cannot support life?
CYST
When does a protist perform sexual reproduction?
during times of stress
What types of protists eat food in soluble form?
OSMOTROPH
What term describes the point where 2 haploid nuclei coexist in a single cell?
DIKARYON
What type of fungi have the greatest surface-area to volume ratio?
UNICELLULAR FUNGI
Name the structure on each hyphae that allows it to penetrate land.
HAUSTORIA
What substance is found in fungi cell walls?
CHITIN
What is the standard subunit of fungi?
HYPHAE
What group contains 75% of known fungi, including bread yeasts and common molds?
ASCOMYCOTA
Name the term for the symbiosis between fungi and photosynthetic algae.
LICHEN
What type of mycorrhizae penetrates the outer cells of plant roots?
ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE
What type of mycorrhizae surrounds the plant roots (found in forest trees and orchids)?
ECTOMYCHORRIZAE
Name the tpe of plants that feed off of mycorrhizae and are non-photosynthetic.
EPIPARASITE
Plants are...
1. Heteromorphic
2. Eukaryotic
3. Autotrophic
4. Haplodiplontic
5. Multicellular
What substance in plants ensures that it stays vertical?
Lignin.
Which of the following applies to all bryophytes?
No conducting vessels.
In which of the bryophytes does the sporophyte continue to grow (not just for reproduction)?
ANTHOCEROPHYTA.
Which bryophyte grows prostrate and uses gemmae for sexual reproduction?
None.
But Hepaticophyta(liverworts) has these characteristics, except it uses gemmae for ASEXUAL reproduction.
Name the reproductive structures on back of ferns.
SORI.
What do whisk ferns lack?
ROOTS, LEAVES, AND SEEDS.
What are used as pot scrubbers by Native Americans?
HORSETAILS.
What does a seed accomplish?
1. Protects embryo from drought, predator.
2. Increases dispersal.
3. No need for water to reproduce.
4. Pollination through wind, insects, mammals, birds.
What is the underground stem called?
RHIZOME
What group of gymnosperms produce ephedrine and is most closely related to angiosperms?
GNETOPHYTA
How do conifers prevent self-fertilization?
MALE CONES LOCATED BELOW FEMALE CONES
Which gymnosperm group has needle-like leaves?
CONIFEROPHYTA
What makes male Ginkgo trees smell?
SEED(CONTAINS BUTYRIC/ISOBUTYRIC ACID)
Advancements in Angiosperms?
Flower, broad leaves, fruits
What structure creates pollen?
Anther.
What structure creates eggs?
GYNOECIUM.
Characteristic of a dicots?
1. Parallel veins in leaves
2. Scattered vascular bundles.
3. Monosculate pollen.
4. Floral parts in multiples of 3.
Characteristic of a monocots?
1. Netted veins in leaves
2. Vascular bundles in rings.
3. Tricolpate pollen.
4. Floral parts in multiples of 4, 5.
What is the main component of wood?
xylem
Which meristems promote primary growth?
apical meristem
Name the apical merisstems that replace the main shoot when it is eaten or broken off.
axillary buds
What replaces the fatty cutin layer in plants with secondary growth?
bark
Name the hairlike growths from the epidermis of plants that can secrete toxic substances to deter herbivores.
trichomes
Where on the leaf are stomata mostly found?
lower epidermis