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32 Cards in this Set

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What is a notochord?
a long supporting that runs through a chordate's body just below the nerve chord
see p.767
Chordates a some stage of their life must have:
a. notochord
b. dorsal, hollow nerve chord
c. pharyngeal pouches
d. tail that extends beyond the anus
there are 4
Are all notochords vertebrates?
YES, but in humans, as they develpo, it is replaced by a stronger, supporting structure known as a backbone (which is made up of segments of bones called vertebrae)
What is the purpose of vertebrae?
a. provide an area for other muscles to attach
b. place for muscles to attach
c. protects nerve chords
there are 3
Characteristics vertebrates have in common:
a. 2 sets of appendages
b. closed circulatory system with ventral heart
c. either have lungs or gills for breathing
there are 3
Basic classes of vertebrates:
a. fish
b. reptiles
c. amphibians
d. mammals
e. birds
there are 5
Single-looped circulatory system:
blood is pumped from the heart to the gills to the rest of the body before it returns to the heart

heart, gills, body, heart
Double-looped circulatory system:
one loop carries the blood to the lungs and the other loop carries it from to heart to the rest of the body

Loop 1: from heart to lungs
Loop 2: from heart to body
concentration of nerve cells and sensory cells in the head of the organism
The amniotic egg is surrounded by a shell, what can and cannot enter this shell?
Enters and exits: oxygen and carbon dioxide

keeps inside: water
enters and exits:

keeps inside:
Three method of reproduction among vertebrates:


Oviparous and example:
producing eggs that develop and hatch outside female's body

ex: chicken, turtle
Ovoviviparous and example:
producing eggs that develop and hatch within female's body and born alive

ex: sharks
Viviparous and example:
retaining the developing embryo inside the female's body and bearing offspring alive; it bathes the developing embryo inside the liquids

ex: mammles
Name what all chordates have in some stage of their life.
a. notochord
b. hollow dorsal nerve chord
c. pharyngeal slit
d. a tail
there are 4
flexible rod-like structure that provides body support, unique to chordates (replaced by backbone)
hollow dorsal nerve chord:
develops into main nerve pathway from body to brain
pharyngeal slit:
a narrow opening in throat regions of chordates
chordates that are an exception to the rule:

there are 2
Three classes of living fish:
Cartilaginous Fish
Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)
Jawless: description and example
-no jaw
-no body skeleton (has cartilage)
-no scales
-no pairs of fins
-no gill coverings

EX: hagfish, lamprey
Cartilaginous Fish: description and example
-skeleton of cartilage
-plate-like scales; scales around mouth evolve into teeth
-most are carnivores
-has jaw
-paired fins
-no swim bladder

EX: rays, sharks, skates
Osteichthyes (Bony Fish): description and example
-skeleton with bones
-gills protected by flap (operculum)
-has swim bladder

2 types:fleshy-finned, ray-finned

EX: lion fish, eel, salmon, anchovies, blue fish, lung fish
Explain how a Lamprey eats and survives in the water.
it has a round opening with tooth-like structures that cuts a hole through the skin and sucks out blood and body fluids. (has 1 heart)
Hagfish: # of hearts, # of pairs of gills
5 hearts

5-15 pairs of gills
Swim bladder:
Holds gas to change a fish's location in water. More air, fish goes up; less air, fish goes down.
What is the function of the mucus and slime that covers fish?
allows it to move through the water easier
What bony structure protects the gills?
Explain how water reaches the gills.
Gill slits close and mouth opens increasing volume of mouth and pharynx. Water is sucked into mouth. Gill slits open and mouth closes. Volume of mouth decreases, pushing water out over gills.
Three ways in which waste materials are eliminated in fish:
a. ammonia diffuses across the gill into water
b. salts are pumped in/out of their body fluids by specialized cells in their gills
c. has a simple kidney
Parts of the nervous system and their function
1. olfactory bulb: smell
2. cerebrum: smell and basic behaviors
3. optic lobes: process visual information
4. cerebellum: coordinates body's movement
5. medulla oblongata: regulates function of internal organs and maintains balance
6. spinal chord
6 (last with no function)
What is the purpose of the lateral line in fish?
enables the fish to detect movements