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31 Cards in this Set

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Most organisms are made of the following 4 elements
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogren
I.A. How is matter recycled?
Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
I.B. Define biogeochemical cycles
The process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
I.C. Matter can cycle throught the biosphere because biological systems do BLANK use up BLANK; they BLANK it.
not, matter, transform
II.A. All living things require BLANK to survive
Water
II.B. Explain the relationship between evaporation and transpiration.
Evaporation is the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas.
Transpiration is water that can also enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants.
II.C. How do clouds form?
Clouds form when water vapor condenses into tiny droplets.
II.D. What is precipitation? List 4 ex.
Precipitation is when droplets become large enough and the water then returns to Earth's surface. Ex. rain, snow, sleet or hail.
II.E.What 3 things can happen to water once it returns to land?
1) Most percipitation runs along the surface of the ground until it enters a river or stream that carries the runoff back to an ocean/lake 2) Rain seeps into the soil, some of it deeply enough to become ground water 3) Water in the soil enters plants through the roots, and the water cycle begins anew.
Define nutrient:
Chemical substance that an organism requires to live.
Why do organisms need nutrients?
Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.
Give 2 reasons why recycling nutrients is important in ecosystems?
1)Due to short supply of nutrients recycling nutrients is essential for these ecosystems to keep functioning 2) Nutrient cycling, also prevents many chemicals from reaching concentrations that would be toxic or harmful to organisms
III.A.i.Of all the carbon on Earth, less than BLANK % actively circulates within the biosphere
1 (one)
III.A.ii. Describe 3 ways carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere and classify the kind of process that is involved.
1) biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration & decomposition of plants and animals 2) geochemical processes, such as the release of carbon dioxide gas to the atmospher by volcanoes 3) mixed biogeochemical
III.A.iii. How is carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide is taken out by the process of photosynthesis.
III.A.iv. Caron dioxide is a BLANK in the atmosphere, in the oceans Carbon dioxide is dissolved, and underground it is found as
Gas;
coal, petroleum, and calcium carbonate rock.
III.A.iii. How is carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide is taken out by the process of photosynthesis.
III.A.v. What might happen if vast areas of forest are cleared?
If vast areas of forest are cleared then consumers will have a limited food supply. The process of photosynthesis will not occur as often.
III.B.i. Why do organisms require nitrogen?
All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins.
III.B.ii. What are the main nitrogen containing nutrients in the bisophere?
Nitrogen gas (N2), ammonia (NH3), nitrate ions (NO3-), nitrite ions (NO2-)
III.B.iii. Although nitrogen is the most abundent element in the atmosphere (78%) humans cannot take in the nitrogen directly. Explain how humans get nitrogen to make proteins in their own body.
Once nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia then bacteria in the soil can convert ammonia into nitrates & nitrites. Once these products are available, producers can use them to make proteins. consumers then eat the producers and reuse the notrogen to make their own proteins.
III.B.iv. What is the relationship between nitrogen fixation and denitrification?
Nitrogen fixation is the process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia. Denitrification is the conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas by soil bacteria.
III.C.i. Phosphorous is part of an energy producing, life sustaining molecule calle BLANK.
DNA & RNA
III.C.ii. How is phosphorous different than carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen?
Phosphorous does not enter the atmosphere. Instead, phosphorus remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals and in ocean sediments.
III.C.iii. Phosphorous exists as BLANK sotred mostly on land in BLANK and BLANK and in BLANK
inorganic phosphate;
rock, soil minerals, ocean sediments
III.C.iv. Explain how phosphorous is cycled from land, ocean, sediments and to living organisms.
Phosphate washes into rivers and streams where it dissolves. Them makes it way to ocean where it is used by marine organisms. When plansts absorb phosphate from the soil or from water, the plants bind the phosphate into organic compounds. organic phosphate moves through the food web, from producers -> consumers and -> the rest of the ecosystem.
IV.A. Define primary productivity
the rate at which organic matter is created by producers.
IV.B. Using the word limiting nutrient explain why farmers apply fertilizers to their crops.
Farmers who are aware of limiting nutrients, apply fertilizers to their crops to boost their productivity. Nutrients help plants grow larger and more quickly than they would in unfertilized soil
IV.C. Oceans are nutrient BLANK compared to land.
-poor environments
IV.D. The limiting nutrient in the following areas are:
1. oceans or other saltwater environments
2. streams, lakes, and freshwater environments
1.nitrogen, silica, or iron
2. phosphorus
IV.E. What is a (algal) bloom and why do they occur?
A bloom is an immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient. They occur because if there are more nutrients available, the producers can grow and reproduce more quickly. If not enough consumers to eat the excess algae, conditions can become so favorable for growth that algae could cover the surface of the water.