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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
elements
-a substance that can't be broken down into a simpler chemical substance
-25 are essential for living organisms
symbols
general symbols- C=carbon, H=hydrogen, He=helium, etc.
trace elements
-elements that are present in very small amounts
(ex. I=iodine, Zn=zinc, Co=cobalt, Cu=copper, Fe=iron)
-know 3
-% in human body=trace
Table 6.1, Elements that make up the human body
Oxygen-O-65%,
Carbon-C-18.5%,
Hydrogen-H-9.5%,
Nitrogen-N-3.3%,
Calcium-Ca-1.5%,
Phosphorus-P-1.0%
atoms
-the basic building blocks of all matter
-the smallest part of an element that has characteristics of that element
Nucleus
center of the atom
-positively charged
protons
positively charged particles
neutrons
no charge
electrons
negatively charged
electron energy levels
1st energy level----2
2nd level----8
3rd level----8
4th level----10
isotopes
atoms of the same substance that have different #'s of neutrons (more)
covalent bond
-atoms share electrons
-not always shared equally
EXAMPLE:
water
-makes up 70-95% of most organisms
-water is polar
polar molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge
ex- water
Label an atom, structure
This is a labled atom.
MOLECULE
a group of atoms held together by covalent bond
ION
a charged particle made of atoms
ionic bond + example
The attractive force between two ions of opposite charge
EXAMPLE: chlorine and sodium
COMPOUND
a substance that is composed of 2 or more different elements that are chemically combined
Electron cloud
the region of space surrounding the nucleus/ELECTRON
Hydrogen bonds
The attraction of opposite charges between hydrogen and oxygen which makes a weak bond. HELPS HOLD PROTEINS TOGETHER
capillary action
water can climb up tubes
WATER TEMPERATURE CHANGES
'heats up slowly ---> requires a lot of heat to increase temp.
'cools off quikly
'good insulator (ex. wetsuits)
"Important for cells
"Helps maintain homeostasis
Ice
'expands when it freezes
'ice is less dense than water--->floats

LiQUID- MOVES AROUND
ICE- ORGANIZED
Diffusion
the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Brownian motion
Diffusion results because of the random movement of particles
Dynamic equilibrium
the molecules continue to move randomly and collide with one another; however, no further charge in concentration will occur
rate of diffusion chart
-affects of temperature, pressure and concentration
title- Rate of Diffusion
see Question
Single Bond
C-C Carbon can bond with other carbon atoms
SHARE 1 e-
Double Bond
C-C When each atom shares two electrons
SHARE 2 e-
Triple Bond
C-C When each atom shares three electrons
SHARE 3 e-
Isomers
GLUCOSE/FRUCTOSE
--> C 6 H 12 O 6
Isomers- compounds w/ the same chemical formula but different physical structure
Isomers
Glucose/Fructose
--> C 6 H 12 0 6
ISOMERS- compounds w/ the same chemical formula but different physical structure
Biomolecules
Large organic proteins that have Carbon
ex- proteins
Carbon--->Organic
Organic molecuels contain Carbon and Hydrogen
Polymers
-condensation
-hydrolysis
polymers: a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
-formed by condensation (1 molecule joins larger chain and forms bigger polymer)
-breaks polymers apart (takes ine part of polymer off)
Carbohydrates
a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, USED BY CELLS TO PROVIDE ENERGY
-Monosaccharide
simplest type of carb, simple sugar
ex- fructose, glucose
Disaccharide
2 monosaccharides combined
ex- Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
Polysaccharide
More than 2 monosac's
ex- starch, glycogen, cellulose
Lipids
-C, H or small amount of O
EX. FATS, OILS, WAXES
-non-polar = insoluble in water
-3 Fatty acids and 1 glycerol
Fatty acid=long chain of C + H
Glycerol=3 C molecuel which is backbone for lipid
1 Saturated
2 Unsaturated
3 Polyunsaturated
1- Carbon have single bonds
2- Carbon have double bonds
3- Carbon have triple bonds
Protiens
carry out metabolism + give structure to tissue
-C,H,N,O + sometimes S
1- amino acids
2- Peptide bond
3- Importance of Shape
4- Enzymes
1- basic building blocks of proteins
- some acidic, some basic, some no charge
-->causes them to attract/repel eachother
2- covalent bond b/w amino acids
- diff shapes and sizes
3- b/c if an amino acid sequence changes the protein may fold diff and won't be able to do its job
4- a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction--> speeds them up
Nucleic ACIDS
COMPLEX biomolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code --> blueprint
1- Nucleotides
2- 3 groups: Nitrogen base, simple sugar and phosphate group
3- DNA and RNA
1- smaller sub-units that make up polymers
2-3 groups: nitrogenous base, simple sugar, phosphate group
3- Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid
DNA- MASTER COPY OF ORGANISMS INFORMATION CODE, DETERMINES HOW AN ORGANISM LOOKS AND ACTS
RNA- copy of DNA used for making proteins
Cells
basic units of living organisms
Cell Theory
1- all organisms are composed of 1 or more cells
2- basic units of structure and function of organisms
3- All cells come from preexisting cells
pOKARYOTIC VRS. EUKARYOTIC
prokaryotic- (bacteria)
1- do not contain membrane bound organelles (small specialized structures w/in cells

Eukaryotic (animal and plant cells)
- 1- membrane bound organelles
2- most multicellular organisms
3- can be unicellular
4- yeast, amoeba and some algae
Organelles
1- Cell Wall
2- Nucleus
3- Neucleolus
4- ribosomes
5- cytoplasm
6- nuclear envelope
7- ER
8- Golgi Apparatus
9-Vacuole
10- Lysosomes
11- Choloroplasts
12-Mitochondria
13- Cytoskeleton
1- provides additional support and protection outside membrane, non-selective
2- brain of the cell, directions 4 proteins
3- where chromosomes are made
4- where cells produce proteins
-->directions from DNA
5- clear fluid inside cell
6- seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
7- site of cellular chemical reactions
8- sorts proteins and packs them into membrane bound structures and sends them away
9- stores food,enzymes and waste
10- contain digestive enzymes
11- captures sunlight/energy and converts it to chemical energy
12- transform energy
13- used for support and structure
-constantly changing shape
-microtubles (cylinder) and microfilaments (protein fibers)
Plasma Membrane
flexible boundary b/w cell and its environment that allows a steady supply of nutrients to come into the cell despite the outer conditions
-glucose, amino acids + lipids
Phospholipid
Phospholipid Bilayer
-lipids-->3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
-if u replace a fatty acid w/ a phosphate you get a phospholipid
-->2 fatty acids, 1 phosphate, 1 glycerol
SEE PICTURE IN NOTES
head is polar--> soluble in water
tail is non polar--> insoluble in water
proteins
throughout entire membrane
-help regulate which molecules enter and leave the cell