Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/29

Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell theory
cells are the structural, functional, reproductive unit of life
what is the signifinance of cell divison
the passing on of DNA
cell devision in prokaryotic cells
binary fisson
prokaryotic cell devision
replicating of single chromosome than deviding it in half
asexual reproduction
somatic cells
body cells
diploid
46 chromosomes
growth development and maintanence
germ cells
produces gametes
haploid
23 chromosomes
species have different chromosome numbers
humans 46
dorsophilia 4
chicken 76
corn 20
goldfish 92
chromosome in humans
2n (diploid) each parent has 1 set
1n+1n=2n
you get one from mother and one from father
chromosomes in humans
they are pairs

homologous gene for the same trait
they carry have the genes for the same trait may not have the same forms
humans have 23 pairs
usually singled bodied
and elongate
chromosomes prior to cell divison
they thicken
replicate-->chromatids
centromeres move to polar ends
divison of somatic cells
growth development and maintence
the goal is 1cell-->2cells

both diploid and identical
Cell cycle
Interphase

Nuclear divison
(mitosis or meiosis)

cytokensis
Interphase G1
most of cell life is spent in interphase
metabolic activity is high, performing normal cell activity
Trigger->prepares to devide
Interphase s
Synthesis

Nucleus preperations
After DNA replication the chromosomes are double bodied and each consist of two sister chromatid
Interphase G2
cytolasmic preperation:

proteins mitotic spindles which seperate double bodied chromosomes
Cell membrane
doubling cell organelles
Prophase
Thickinening chromosomes
breakdown of the nucleus membrane
centrioles migrate
--->in animals
the formation of the mitotic spindle
Metaphase
Chromosomes are at the center of the cell
spindle fibers attached to centromeres of the chromatids
Anaphase
Double bodied chromosomes are pulled apart
one body (daughter chromosome) toward each pole
Telophase
Chromosome at each pole elongate, the nucleus membrane forms
There are two identical nuclei

Mitosis complete
Cytokenesis
Divison of the cytoplasm

In Animals-->cleavage
Plants and fungi-->cell wall
Control of Cell division
Cell density inhib
-->stop deviding when they touch eachother
Anchorag
-->they must be in contact with solid surface
Growth factors
-->protein secreted that stimulates other cells to devide they stop deviding when protein runs out
Cancers
Uncontrolled cell growth
Division control genes are not working
problems with cancers
cancer cells dont function normally
they starve the normal cells
-->blood vessels
metosis
causes of cancers
Inherited
enviromental
-uv light
-tobacco smoke
-asbestos
-formaldehyde
-diet
High fat low fiber diet
colon rectal and brest cancer
salty diets
stomach cancer
Treatments
Surgery
-to remove masses
radiation
-destruction to dna
chemo drugs
-prohibit cell devision
drawbacks of Radiation and Chemo
they are non specific
they can damage healthy cells
Lung Cancer
since 1950s
doubled in males
tripled in females
smoking in hs/college 10x chances of cancer