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110 Cards in this Set

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standard small grouping of atoms that contribute to the characteristics of an organic molecule
Functional group
small molecule that consists of a nitrogen containing ring compound, a suga, and 1 or more phosphate groups
nucleotide
small molecule consisting of a hydrocarbon chain ending in a carboxyl group; a component of phospholipids and triacylglycerides
fatty acid
a polar 3 carbon molecule and 3 hydroxyl groups; a starting compound for triacylglycerides and phospholipids
glycerol
a lipid; soluble molecule derived from cholesterol; many steroids are used as hormones
steriod
a sugar composed of two simple sugars, such as two glucose molecules or one glucose and one fructose
dissacharide
a carbohydrate macromolecule formed by the polymerization of simple sugars.
polysaccharide
a compound that contains the equivalent of one water molecule for every carbon atom; includes sugars and polysaccharides
carbohydrate
– a polysaccharides made by plants; major structural material of wood, cotton, and paper
cellulose
– a nucleotide that consists of adenosine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups; universal E currency, providing E for many biochemical reactions
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
large molecules, almost always a protein that accelerates the rate of a specific chemical reactions
enzyme
side chain) – each amino acid’s characteristic group of atom
R group
a protein with an enlongated shape, includes most structural proteins
fibrous protein
– breaking down the bond b/w 2 building blocks, by adding a water molecule reversing the dehydration condensation reaction
hydrolysis
– large molecule formed by polymerization of smaller building blocks
macromolecule
study of structure and reactions that actually occur in living organisms
biochemistry
fats oils and related organic compounds found in the cell membranes of living organisms; store energy
lipid
hydrocarbon chain in which all the bonds b/w carbon atoms are single bonds
saturated fat
simple sugar with 3-9 carbon atoms
monosaccharide
– table sugar; one molecule of water for ever Carbon
sucrose
– 5 carbon sugar in RNA
ribose
– polysaccharide used in animals for long term energy storage
glycogen
contains covalently attached carbohydrates
glycoprotein
chain of amino acid held together by peptide bonds
polypeptide
covalent bonds b/w 2 amino acid molecules in a polypeptide; formed by the carboxyl group of one amino acid attaching to the amino group of another amino acid
polypeptide bond
connected carbon atoms with 4 atoms sharing their available other shell electrons
hydrocarbon chain
– simple carbohydrate; 1 molecule of water for every C atom
sugar
small molecule contains both amino and carboxyl groups; building block of polypeptide proteins
amino acid
linking of 2 building blocks, accompanied by the removal of a water molecule
dehydration condensation reaction
hydrocarbon chain that contains at least one double bond b/w 2 carbon atoms; can accept 2 more hydrogen atoms per double bond
unsaturated fat
amphipathic derivative of glycerol in which 2 hydroxyl groups attach to fatty acids and the third to a phosphate ester; main component of biological membrane
phospholipid
simple 6-C sugar made by plants during photosynthesis
glucose
polysaccharides used in plants for long term E
starch
tough polysaccharide in the cellular of fungi and exoskeleton
chitin
a macromolecule (DNA or RNA) formed by the polymerization of nucleotides
nucleic acid
– in an amino acid, the carbon atom to which the carboxyl group and the amino acid are both attached
alpha carbon
– relatively compact protein that is round shaped
globular protein
long thin molecules in which organisms store and transport genetic info
DNA
movement of material across concentration gradient that requires energy and a protein molecule to pump the transport
active transport
form of communication in animal cells that allows passage while strenthing the connections b/w cells
adhering junctions
a microtubule organizing center that also contains a organelle called centriole; important in cell division
centrosome
large green membrane enclosed organelle that performs photosynthesis
chloroplast
the number of molecule of a substance in given volume
concentration
a graded difference in the concentration of a substance
concentration gradient
part of cytoplasm not containing inside organelles
cystol
extensive network of folded membranes inside eukaryotic cell
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
accepted model of bioloical membrane structure; stresses that protein and phospholipid molecules can move withing each leaf of the lipid bilayer
fluid mosaic model
directs the flow of newly made proteins; packaging center; traffic director; wraps proteins and lipids in a membrane for secretion
golgi complex
stack of thylakoids within a chloroplast
granum
pigments produce red, yellow, and blue
chromoplast
having the same concentraion to water and solute
isotonic
provide the main foce for movements,shaping, and change in protein filaments; important in muscles
microfilament(actin)
double membrane that encloses the nucleus
nuclear envelope
the area that DNA is found in a prokaryote cell
nucleoid
when a membrane extends outward and surrounds materials then move them into cells; larger materials
phagocytosis
when a membran extends outward and surrounds liquids and dissolved molecules and moves them into the cell
pinocytosis
fine intercellular channels between plant cells, derived from vesicles trapped in the growing cell plate
plasmodesmata
transports NA ions out of cell and K ions into cell
sodium - potassium pump
amount of pressure put onto cell walls of plants from osmosis
turgor pressure
various membrane enclosed sacs
vesicle
an increased rate of passive transport
facilitated diffusion
fuse adjacent membranes together and prevent molecules from leaking out
tight junction
a pair of small tubes that lie at right angles to one another
centrioles
one of two globular proteins from which microtubules are assembled
tubulin
making own food or obtaining energy and synthesizing organic molecules from inorganic
photosynthesis
the random movement of like molecules or ions from an area of high concentration to low concentration
simple diffusion
force created against inside of membrane during osmosis
osmotic pressure
a network of protein fibers that runs through the cystol of eukaryotic cells; gives stucture and support and provides the force needed for cell movement
cytoskeleton
dotted with ribosomes and transports protein made from ribosome
rough ER
allowing only some molecules through
selectively permeable
a protein that contains covalently attached carbohydrates (oligosaccharides)
glycoprotein
a kind of plastid in plants that stores stach, lipids, proteins
amyloplasts
having a lesser concentration of water and greater concentration of solute
hypertonic
provide strength where cell is subjected to mechanical stress
intermediate filaments
holes in the nuclear envelope that connect the inside with the cytoplasm
nuclear pores
a subcellular structure that performs a specialized task
organelles
convert energy into a usable form, produce ATP, has own DNA and makes some of own protein
mitochondria
a cells uptake of specigic substances that are recognized by receptor proteins on the plasma membrane
receptor - mediated endocytosis
plasma membrane of adjacent cells is very close and substances can move from cell to cell
gap junction
summary of cellular basis of organisms: 1. living things made of cells 2. cell is basic unit of structure and function 3. cells come from other cells
cell theory
membrane can extend outward and surround tiny matericals and move them into the cell
endocytosis
transport that occurs spontaniously and without the use of energy
passive transport
large sacs that may occupy 95% of volume of cell; in animals they store fat; plants store water
vacules
a chemical to which a protein first bonds
receptor
provides main force for movements, shape, change; important in muscles
actin filament
a flattened disc surrounded by the innermost membrane of a chloroplast
thylakoid
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
osmosis
having a greater concentration of water than solute
hypotonic
the part of the endoplamsic reticulum that is smooth and deals with lipids, metabolism, and detox
smooth ER
digestive vats that contain enzymes that break down proteins, nucleic acid, sugar, lipids
lysosomes
hollow cylinder orginating in the micotubule organizing center found near nucleus; causes motion of cilia, flagella
microtubules
the rigid stucture surrounding plant cells, made of carbohydrates; function after cell dies
cell wall
complex assemblies of RNA and proteins that are important for protein synthesis; located on the rough ER
ribosomes
all of the cell contents outside of the nucleus
cytoplasm
a plant organelle surrounded by a double membrane; includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts
plastids
the membrane that surrounds the cell
plasma membrane
how cells export molecules and is same principle as phagocytosis only in reverse
exocytosis
a discrete complex of DNA and proteins
chromosome
simple 3 C molecule with 3 hydroxyl groups
glycerol
glyceroil with a phosphate group attached in place of 3rd hydroxyl group and 2 fatty acid chains; also main component of plasma membrane
phospholipid
type of lipid; hydrocarbon chains formed in 4 interconnected rings; built from cholosterol
steriod
smallest sugars; have 3-9 C atoms
monosaccharide
2 sugars combined
disaccharide
several sugars forming short chains
oligosaccharide
long chains of sugar
polysaccharide
five carbon sugar that is a part of RNA
ribose
made of oligosaccharides attached to proteins
glycoprotein
makes nucleic acid; contains a sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
nucleotides
energy release by adding water
hydrolyzing
contains a carboxyl group, amino group, and a side chain;
amino acid