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256 Cards in this Set

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What is responsible for turning impulses into action potentials in the ear?
organ of Corti
What is responsible for amplifying impulses in the ear?
Ossicles
What is responsible for vibrating at same frequency as incoming sound waves in the ear?
Tympanic Membrane (ear drum)
Name a specific cytokine.
Interleukin-I, Interleukin-II, Interferon
What role does IL-1 and IL-2 play?
IL-1: Helps B-cells release antibodies; also helps Tc cells become active

IL-2: Secreted by macrophages and makes TH cells produce IL-2.
Why are MHC molecules important?
MHC molecules allow cells to "call for help" and tells T-Cells that the cell who secreted them is infected.
Describe role of Tc cells relative to what they do and who they help.
Tc cells attack cells that have become infected with a particular toxin or fungi. They destroy the cell by destroying the cell membrane.
Describe role of TH cells and relative to what they do and who they help
TH cells help macrophages by taking up what the macrophages have engulfed and using digestive enzymes to destroy them.
What is the role of interferons?
Preventing cell-to-cell spread of viruses; non-specific defense, any virus causes it.
Where are T-cells matured?
Thymus
Where do B-cells come from?
Bone Marrow
What is pleiotropy?
Ability of a gene to have multiple phenotypical effects.
What role do chemokines play?
-Attract phagocytes
-Stimulates release of histamine from basophils
-Involved in inflammatory response
What molecules do leukocytes release that affect body temp. and cause fever?
Pyrogens
What is an R-Plasmid?
R-Plasmids are circular plasmids found in some bacteria that allow them to resist antibiotics and also gives them the genes that code for sex pili.
Which of the following are bacteria or viruses?
1. Diptheria
2. Botulism
3. Influenza
4. Rabies
5. Scarlet Fever
1. Bacteria
2. Bacteria
3. Virus
4. Virus
5. Bacteria
What is a virulent phage?
One that reproduces only by the lytic cycle.
What is the role of a restriction enzyme?
Restriction enzymes help bacteria destroy incoming DNA fragments; also used in labs to cut specific points in DNA.
What is a phage that uses both lytic and lysogenic cycles?
Temperate Phage
Explain the role of reverse transcriptase.

Where is it found?
Codes mRNA back into DNA.

Found in Retroviruses.
What are the two types of nephrons?

What animals have them?
Juxtamedullary and Cortical

Only humans and birds have juxtamedullary nephrons.
What is Tay-Sachs disease?

What type of gene dominance is shown?
Tay-Sachs involves the buildup of lipids in the brain, eventually inhibiting brain growth..

Incomplete dominance is shown, thereby making heterozygotes producing less of the enzyme that breaks down the lipids. Although only homozygous recessive individuals die from it.
What is an example of epistasis?
Mouse hair color. A third gene masks what the other genes do regardless of their alleles.
What phylum are flatworms apart of?
Platylhelminthese (includes flatworm and tapeworm)
What phylum are octopuses and squid apart of?
Mollusca
What phylum are earthworms apart of?
Annelida
What are the stinging capsules on cnidaria called?
Nematocysts
What enzyme breaks polysacharides into disachardies?
Amylase
What enzymes break down disacharides to monosacharides?
Lactase, Maltase, Sucrase
What are the most abundant proteases that break down proteins?
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
What role does cholecystokinin play?
Production of pancreatic enzymes and contraction of gall bladder.
What role does gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) play?
Stimulates release of insulin.
Where are tight junctions found?
Gastric System (small intestine, stomach, etc.)
Where are gap junctions found?
Muscle Cells
Where are desmosomes found?
Skin Cells
What is the function of the smooth ER?
-Synthesis of Lipids
-Synthesis of Steroids
-Synthesis and storage of glycogen in liver and muscle cells
What method is mainly used in sequencing and separation of DNA based on size?
Gel Electrophoresis
What is used to compare DNA of multiple individuals?
Southern Blotting
What method is used to amplify small portions of DNA into larger ones with the use of other cells?
PCR- Polymerase Chain Reaction
What is a plasmid?
A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA found in bacteria. Not native to bacteria, but usually helpful.
What is conjugation?
Conjugation is a way for bacteria to exchange information. F+ bacteria use a sex pilus to attach to another bacteria and exchange information.
What is transduction?
Transduction is a way for bacteria to get new genetic information, which is caused from the lytic or lysogenic cycles of viruses.
What is Transformation/Recombination?
This is a way that bacteria get different genetic information by the picking up naked/foreign DNA from the surrounding medium and incorporating it into its own genetics.
What method does a bacteria use to reproduce?
Binary Fission
Name three ways bacteria increase genetic variation.
Transduction, Conjugation, and Transformation/Recombination
What is an inducible system?

Example?
An inducible system is such that an operon is usually turned off, but with the presence of a substrate, the repressor of the operon becomes unbound from the operator and allows polymerases to code the gene.

e.g. lac operon
What is a repressible system?

Example?
A repressible system is one that usually has a repressor that is not bound to the operator, but with the presence of a corepressor (usually the substrate that it is coding for) it becomes inactivated.

e.g. trp operon
Name the various parts of an operon and what they do.
Regulator: Codes for the repressor
Promoter: This tells the polymerase where to attach
Operator: This is the site that the repressor binds to
What type of neurons are present in the eye?
Bipolar Neurons
What is responsible for high acuity vision in the eye?
Fovea
Explain the lytic cycle.
The lytic cycle is a reproductive cycle of a virus where the virus introduces its foreign RNA/DNA and causes the cell to reproduce it and package it into new viruses, eventually causing the cell to lyse and release more viruses.
Explain the lysogenic cycle.
The lysogenic cycle is a reproductive cycle for viruses where a virus inserts its DNA into its host cell and causes it to implement itself into the host DNA into a form called a provirus. The host cell is not lysed but the DNA can lay dormant for long periods.
Explain Type I diabetes with the following topics:
1. Obesity
2. Family History
3. Age of Onset
4. % of Diabetics
5. Pathogenesis
1. Uncommon
2. None
3. <30
4. 10%
5. Autoimmune
Explain Type II diabetes with the following topics:
1. Obesity
2. Family History
3. Age of Onset
4. % of Diabetics
5. Pathogenesis
1. Common
2. Strong
3. >30
4. 90%
5. Insulin resistance and decreased insulin production.
What is the first stage of glucose metabolism when it enters the cell?
Glycolisis
How many ATP/NADH does glycolisis yield?

What type of phosphorylation does it use?
Net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH by substrate level phosphorylation.
What are the end products of glycolisis?
2 pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
Where does glycolisis take place?
Cytoplasm
Explain the role parathyroid hormone plays.
Parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption and increases osteoclast activity as well as Ca2+ levels in the blood; also decreases Ca2+ secretion in the kidneys.
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
4 small pea shaped glands located on the back of the thyroid.
What role does cortisol/cortisone play?
Increases blood glucose levels by breaking down proteins from muscle and increasing gluconeogenesis; decreases protein synthesis.
Where is it secreted from?
Adrenal Cortex
What are the four stages of the menstral cycle?

What hormones affect each stage?
1. Follicular Phase: FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is secreted from anterior pituitary and matures the follicle.
2. Ovulation: A surge in LH (leutinizing hormone)causes ovulation and the mature follicle to burst and release an ovum.
3. Luteal Stage: LH causes the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum. Once matured the endometrium releases progesterone, which matures the endometrium and causes secretions for later implementation of the embryo.
4. Menstration: If fertilization does not take place the endometrium atrophies and causes a drop in progesterone and the endometrium is sloughed off.
What is the function of the midbrain?
It is the relay center for auditory and visual impulses.
What is a population?
A population is a group of single species inhabiting a particular area.
What is a species?
A group of organisms capable of producing viable and fertile offspring.
What is a community?
A community is a group of various populations interacting in a given area.
What is an ecoysystem?
An ecosystem is biotic factors interacting with abiotic factors in a given area.
What type of immunity (active or passive) involves overcoming something like chicken pox?
Active Immunity (vaccines are active)
What immunity (active or passive) involves transfer of antibodies?
Passive Immunity
What are the two types of active immunities?

Explain each.
Humoral Immunity: Involves production of antibodies by B-cells; involves attacking substances found in extracellular medium.

Cell-Mediated Immunity: Involves attacking cells that are already infected; immune response to cancers; combat fungi.
What is the primary immune response and how long does it take to become effective?
The primary immune response is the selective proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes.

Takes 10-17 days to become effective.
What is the secondary immune response and how long does it take to become effective?
Secondary immune response deals with memory cells and attacks an antigen much faster, usually within 2-7 days.
What is an antigen?
Any foreign substance that causes a specific immune response by lymphocytes.

Think of antigen as ANTIbody GENerator.
What cells do antigens stimulate the release of and what do they do?
Antigens stimulate the release of B-Cells, which produce antibodies to defend against them.
What is nitrogenous waste converted to in humans?
Urea
What are the only specific defense mechanisms in humans?
Lymphocytes and Antibodies
What are the most abundant white blood cells (leukocytes)?
Neutrophils
What are the largest phagocytic cells and what are they derived from?
Macrophages, which are derived from monocytes.
What reaction occurs after the sperm breaks through the ovum? What is released?
Fast Block to polyspermy, where Ca2+ ions are released. Development of a fertilization envelope.
What is formed following the cortical reaction?
Fertilization Envelope
When does meiosis II take place in humans?
After the sperm and ovum fuse.
When are primary oocytes produced?

Secondary?
Primary oocytes are produced at birth.

Secondary oocytes are released following ovulation.
What is the inner layer of the ovum called?

Outer layer?
Inner Layer: Zona Pellucida
Outer Layer: Corona Radiata
How man amino acids can be coded for in humans?
20 amino acids
What is PKU disease?
Disease that prevents someone from producing an enzyme that metabolizes phenylalanine.

Autosomal Recessive
What causes sickle cell?
A single base pair substitution, in which valine is substituted where glutamic acid should be.
What chemicals are released from the adrenal medulla?
Catecholamines: Norepinephrine and Epinephrine (formally known as adrenaline and noradrenaline)
What role does catecholamines play?
Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, increase blood glucose levels, increased heart rate and metabolism. Increases blood flow to muscle, brain, and heart (fight or flight response).
What role does aldosterone play?
Aldosterone is secreted when blood pressure is low. Stretch receptors in the heart are one way. Another is the release of renin-angiotensin pathway.

Aldosterone causes active resorption of Na+, passive resorption of water, and excretion of K+ in the distal tubule. Also causes thirst.
Where is aldosterone secreted?
Adrenal Cortex
What does the liver produce to aid in digestion?
Bile
Where is bile stored and what is it released into?
Gall bladder, which releases into the small intestine.
What is the role of bile?
Emulsification of fats to help lipase break them down.
What is the primary reason aerobic respiration such as alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation take place?
To reproduce NAD+. Pyruvate is converted to either lactic acid or ethanol to yield it.
Describe the passage of air starting from outside the nose to the pulmonary venules.
External Nares --> Nasal Cavity --> Internal Nares --> Pharynx --> Larynx --> Trachea --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Alveoli
What causes down syndrome?
Nondisjunction/trisomy at chromosome 21.
What connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus?
Infundibulum
What is the role of prolactin?
Increased production and secretion of milk in mammary glands.
What hormones are secreted from the anterior pituitary?
FSH, LH, GH, prolactin, ACTH, MSH, TSH
What regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland?
The hypothalamus
What are three ways water is transported upward in plants?
Transpirational pull, root hair pressure, and capillary action.
What is the conversion of free N2 (diatomic nitrogen) to its usable form called?
Nitrogen Fixation
What is the must abundant form of carbon in the carbon cycle?
Carbon Dioxide (from air)
What is the protein digesting enzyme in the stomach called?
Pepsin
What is partially digested food in the stomach called?
Chyme
What is the sphincter that connects the stomach to the small intestine?
Pyloric Sphincter
What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
1. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
2. Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle
3. ETC- Electron Transport Chain
Where does the electron transport chain (ETC) take place?
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
What is the chemical equation fo the electron transport chain in humans?
2H+ + 2e- + (1/2)O2 --> H2O
What cells release histamine?
Basophils and mast cells
What is the functional unit of bone?
Osteocyte
What type of bone is located on the inner surface where bone marrow is?
Spongy Bone
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Nephron
What is F+ factor?
F+ factor is a plasmid found in bacteria that allows it to extend a sex pilus to another bacterium and exchange information with it.
What happens when an F+ bacterium interacts with an F- bacterium?
Converts the F- bacterium to F+
Describe skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells with the following:
1. Nuclei per cell
2. Striated?
3. Involuntary/Voluntary
Muscle Cells: Many nuclei per cell, striated, voluntary

Cardiac Cells: Mostly single nuclei, striated, involuntary

Smooth muscle cells: Single nuclei, non-striated, involuntary
Explain the role of the posterior pituitary?
Storage of oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin)
Inside the infundibulum what connects to the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?

Posterior pituitary?
Anterior: Blood vessels

Posterior: Nerve cells (neurosecretory cells)
What is the formula for denitrification?

Where does it occur?
Converts NO2-/NO3- to N2

NO3- --> NO2- --> NO --> N2O --> N2

Denitrifying bacteria.
What is the role of oxytocin?
Increases muscle contractions during birth and releases milk from mammary glands when suckling occurs.
What is the role of ADH?
Increases blood volume by increasing the permeability of the collecting duct to water. Released when baroreceptors in hypothalamus recognize a drop in blood pressure.
How are all organisms named?
Genus Species
What is characteristic of monerans?
No nuclear membrane or membrane-bound organelles present; prokaryotic; reproduce asexualy.
What is characteristic of all protista?
Primitive eukaryotes; traits of plants and animals. (includes algae and slime molds)
What is characteristic of all fungi?
Eukaryotic; non-photosynthetic plants; consume nutrients by consuming dead organic compounds; decomposers
What cells does HIV attack?
TH cells (Helper T-cells)
What cells mainly attack cancer cells?
Natural Killer Cells
What are chains of cocci called?

What are clusters of cocci called?
Streptococcus

Staphylococcus
List the order of compounds being released when your heart or kidney senses blood volume is low.
Renin Production --> Conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I --> conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by ACE --> Production of aldosterone

Erythropoietin is also increased, which makes increases rate erythrocytes (red blood cells) are produced in bone marrow
Where is erythropoietin produced?
Kidney
What is the function of the spleen?
Destruction of old erythrocytes and a reservoir for blood
How long do red blood cells last in the blood?
~120 days
What are the two types of nitrifying bacteria and what are their reactions?
Nitrosifying bacteria (ammonia oxidizers): NH3 --> NH2OH --> NO2-

Nitrifying Bacteria: NO2- --> NO3-

*Occurs in chemoautotrophic bacteria
What is saprophytism?
Decomposers: Fungi, etc.

Saprotroph
What digests cellulose in herbivores?
Symbiotic bacteria (mutualism)
What parasympathetic nerve innervates many thoracic and abdominal viscera?
Vagus (Cranial Nerve X): innervates through SA node.
What is another name for the eardrum?
Tympanic Membrane
What are the three bones of the ear and what do they do?
Ossicles, which amplify incoming sound waves.
What is produced from pyruvate decarboxylation?
1 acetyl-coa molecule per pyruvate and 1 NADH molecule per pyruvate
What is produced in Krebs/Citric Acid cycle?
6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)per molecule of glucose.
What hydrolyzes starch?
Amylase (ptyalin)
What is the action of chewing called?
Mastication
What is the rhythmic action of the esophagus during swallowing called?
Peristalsis
What wavelength of light does photosystem I absorb?
700nm from chlorophyll a
What wavelength of light does photosystem II asborb?
680nm from chlorophyll a
How is urea produced?
Deamination of amino acids by liver.
What is circulation in plants called?
Translocation
What are the three sections of the small intestine in order?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What surrounds the small intestine to increase absorption?
Villi
What enzyme digests fats in the small intestine?
Lipase
What cells are responsible for growth in higher plants?
Meristem Cells
What are the two types of meristem cells?
Apical Meristems: Vertical growth found in the tips of roots and stem.

Lateral Meristems: Lateral growth, which differentiates into xylem or phloem.
What class of plant hormones ensure seeds remain viable through autumn and winter?
Inhibitors
What is a major inhibiting plant hormone, that helps seeds remain viable throughout winter?
Abscisic Acid
What effect does curare have?
Blocks post synaptic acetylcholine receptors so ACh can't bind, causing paralysis.
What effect does botulism have?
Prevents acetylcholine from being released from the presynaptic membrane.
What are the male and female sexual organs in angiosperms called?
Male: Stamen
Female: Pistil/Carpel
What is a monocot and dicot?
Monocots have 1 seed stems and dicots have 2.

Dicots are most flowering plants.

Monocots are most agricultural plants.
What is an epicotyl, hypocotyl, and a cotyledon?
Epicotyl: Precursor to upper stem and leaves
Hypocotyl: Precursor to lower stem and roots.
Cotyledon: Seed Leaf
What is a transgenic bacterium?
One that has foreign DNA incorporated into its own whether by lysogenic bacteriophage or by recombination due to a plasmid vector.
What intracellular component is highest in a resting neuron?
K+
What does the Na+/K+ pump do?
Keeps the inside of a neuron negatively charged by pumping out 3Na+ ions and pumping in 2K+.
What is the functional unit of skeletal muscle?
Sarcomere
What stores Ca2+ ions in muscle cells?
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
What is the outer covering of a muscle fiber?
Sarcolemma
Where is amylase produced?
Pancreas
Where does pancreatic amylase empty into and what causes it to do so?
Pancreatic amylase empties into the small intestine when induced by CCK.

It breaks down starch into DIsacharides (NOT MONOsacharides).
How many autosomes do humans have?
22 pairs
What is Turner's syndrome?
monosomy of the X chromosome. No second x or y chromosome present, giving a female, male-like characteristics
What is Klinefelter's syndrome?
Trisomy, in which XXY is present and a male has female-like characteristics.
What is the role of the large intestine?
Absorption of water and salts
What is codominance?

Example?
Where both alleles of a gene are dominant, exhibiting both in equal amounts.

e.g. ABO blood type system
What is incomplete dominance?

Example?
Where the dominant allele fails to fully mask the recessive allele.

e.g. red + white snapdragons yields pink snapdragons.
What cannot be absorbed into Bowmans capsule and into the proximal convoluted tubule?
Proteins (amino acids can however)
What is primarily absorbed by the descending loop of Henle?
Water
What does aldosterone cause resorption of?
Causes resorption of Na+ and water; secretion into filtrate of K+ in the distal convoluted tubule.
What does ADH cause resorption of?
Water in the collecting duct.
What is the net reaction for photosynthesis in plants?
6CO2 + 12H2O + Light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
When does dark reaction in plants occur?
Only during the day
What is produced after 3 rounds of the Calvin Cycle?
PGAL
How many PGAL molecules are needed to form 1 molecule of glucose?
2
What part of a neuron receives information and transmits it to the cell body?
Dendrites
What is the cell body of a neuron?
Soma
What cells produce myelin in the CNS?

PNS?
CNS: Oligodendrocytes

PNS: Schwann Cells

*Both are glial cells
What neuronal cells in the CNS maintains the blood brain barrier?
Astrocytes
Explain zygote development starting with fertilization.
Zygote --> Morula --> Blastula --> Implamentation --> Gastrula
What is a blastocoel?
Fluid-filled center of the gastrula.
When invagination occurs what is the opening called?
Blastopore
What aids in the development of the neural tube in a developing embryo?
Notochord
What is the order of functional parts of a nephron starting with the glomerulus?
Glomerulus --> Bowman's Capsule --> Proximal Convoluted Tubule --> Descending Loop of Henle --> Ascending Loop of Henle --> Distal Convoluted Tubule --> Collecting Duct --> Ureters
What is first released in response to ingestion of food and what does it cause the release of?
Gastrin, which causes the release of HCl (hydrochloric acid)
What is released in response to food entering the small intestine?
Secretin, which causes the pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralize the income acidic chyme.
What is mainly responsible for concentration of urine?
ADH (vasopressin), which increases/decreases permeability of the collecting duct.
What is hypothyroidism in children called? What is characteristic of it?
Cretinism, which causes short stature and mental retardation.
What are sensory neurons also called?
Afferent Neurons
What are motor neurons also called?
Efferent Nuerons
What are bundles of nerve cell bodies in the PNS called?
Ganglia
What are bundles of nerve cell bodies in the CNS called?
Nuclei
What are bundles of neuronal fibers called?
Plexus
What are the four types of cells in the the CNS and what is their function?
Astrocytes: Most abundant; maintenance of blood brain barrier

Oligodendrocytes: Myelination

Microglia: Removal of debris and pathogens

Ependymal: Maintains cerebrospinal fluid
What are the two types of cells in the PNS and what is their function?
Satellite Cells: Surround cell bodies in ganglia.

Schwann Cells: Myelination
What are the 3 embryonic germ layers?
Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
What does ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm turn into, respectively?
Ectoderm: Skin, hair, nails, mouth, anus, nervous system

Mesoderm: gonads, most organs, muscular system, circulatory system, bones, kidneys

Endoderm: Epithelial linings, liver, and pancreas
What is the process by which the spinal cord develops in an embryo and what is the precursor to the spinal cord called?
Neurolation, which is caused by the notochord. The precursor to the spinal cord is called the neural tube.
What is the outermost covering of the eye?
Sclera
What is beneath the sclera and supplies retina with blood?
Choroid
What is the innermost layer of the eye?
Retina, which contains photoreceptors.
What is the chorion for in an embryo?
Gas exchange
What is the allantois for in an embryo?
Removal of wastes
What is the amnion for in an embryo?
Absorption of shock, to protect embryo
Where is calcitonin released from?

What role does it play?
Thyroid gland.

It decreases bone resorption by increasing osteoblast activity and and decreasing plasma Ca2+ levels.
Where does the light reactions in photosynthesis take place?
Thylakoid Membrane
Where does the dark reaction occur in photosynthesis?
Stroma
What can PGAL be used for in plants?
Immediate energy use, made into glucose (takes 2), or stored as starch.
What are the tiny openings on leaves called that allow air and water to enter and exit?
Stomata
What cells control the rate of air and water entering a leaf through the stomata?
Guard Cells
What effects whether or not stomata are open or not?
Glucose, produced during the day causes guard cells to swell and open.

Turgor is increased.
What type of pheramones trigger reversible effects?
Releaser pheramones
What type of pheramones trigger long-term effects?
Primer Pheramones
How are nutrients exchanged in:
1. Protozoans
2. Cnidarians
3. Arthropods
4. Annelids
1. Simple Diffusion
2. Simple Diffusion, cell membrane is only 2 cells thick
3. Open circulatory system, blood in direct contact with organs. Blood circulates due to body movement. Blood is normally called hemolymph.
4. Closed Circulatory system: dorsal vessel acts as main pump and aortic loops aid in pumping. Lacks blood, hemoglobin present in aqueous environment.
Explain non-cyclic flow in the light reactions and what it produces.
Produces NADPH and ATP. Light is excited at Photosystem I and transferred to NADP+. PI has holes which must be filled by electrons of Photosystem II, which first must travel down ETC.
Explain cyclic flow in the light reactions and what it produces.
Electrons from Photosystem I are excited then sent down ETC and return to fill electron "holes" in PI. Only ATP is produced.

NO OXYGEN IS PRODUCED.
What occurs in Cori Cycle?
Lactic acid is converted to glucose in the liver.
What are warm-blooded animals called?

Cold-blooded animals?
Homeothermic animals

Poikilothermic animals
What is the main method of food capture for protozoa?
Phagocytosis
What is the time between nerve stimulation and muscle contraction called?
Latent Period
What is the time where muscle is unresponsive to new stimulus?
Absolute Refractory Period
What is it called when a muscle contraction is continuous and the muscle can't relax?
Tetanus
What is the function of the cerebral cortex?
Process and integrate sensory and motor responses and is important for memory and creative thought.
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
To stimulate release of hormones from pituitary gland that are involved in metabolism, sex drive, blood pressure, and body temperature.
What is the function of the thalamus?
Relay center for spinal cord and cerebral cortex.
Explain blood flow through the heart starting with the inferior vena cava and ending with the aorta.
Inferior vena cava --> right atria --> tricuspid valve --> right ventricle --> pulmonary semilunar valve --> pulmonary artery --> pulmonary veins --> left atrium --> bicuspid/mitral valve --> left ventricle --> aortic semilunar valve --> aorta
What are lymph nodes and what cells does it contain?
Contains lymphocytes and leukocytes; they are swellings along lymph vessels that filter lymph.
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?

Exocrine function?
Endocrine: Release of insulin from beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, and release of glucagon from alpha cells of islets.

Exocrine: Digestion of fats, proteins, and carboyhydrates
What is the function of glucagon?
Increased blood glucose levels by converting glycogen to glucose in the liver.

Secreted when blood sugar is low, by cholecystokinin, and release of catecholamines.
What is a heterotroph?
Something that must consume carbon for energy.

e.g. fungi and animals
What is an autotroph?
Any organism that makes its own food.

e.g. plants and deep sea bacteria
What controls how much light enters the eye?
Iris (the opening that the iris controls is called the pupil)
What bends light before it enters the eye?
Cornea
What focuses image on the retina?
Lens
Where is T4 produced?
Thyroid
How is the majority of T3 produced?
By conversion of T4 to T3
How are thyroid hormones made in the thyroid?
By the glycoprotein thyroglobulin.
Where does photosynthesis take place?
Thylakoid Membrane (light reactions)
What is the fluid matrix in chloroplasts?
Stroma
Where does chlorophyl reside?
Thylakoid membranes
What type of respiratory system do most arthropods use?
Tracheal system
What are the two main parts of a tracheal system in arthropods?
Trachea: extends throughout body and touches almost every cell.

Spiracle: tiny opening on body surface that allows oxygen in.
Explain how a clot is formed and all that is involved.
Platelets + collagen --> thromboplastin + prothrombin yields thrombin --> thrombin + fibrinogen yields fibrin
What are characteristic of homologous structures?
Evolutionary origin
What are characteristic of analogous structures?
Similar function but NO evolutionary origin.
What are the two types of hormones in humans?
Peptide and Steroid
How do peptide hormones elicit their effect on a cell and where?

Steroid hormones?
Peptide: bind to cell membrane, where a cascading effect takes place, usually through G-protein coupled receptors and cAMP.

Steroid: Enter cell membrane and bind to receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus and stimulate gene transcription of particular proteins.
What is a testcross?
A test that crosses an individual expressing a dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual to test whether the dominant phenotype is homozygous dominant or heterozygous for that trait.
What are monozygotic twins and how do they occur?

What are dizygotic twins and how do they occur?
Monozygotic: Identical twins; results when ovum splits at two cell stage.

Dizygotic: Fraternal twins; occurs when ovaries release two follicles.