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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
worked with pea plants to determine that biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from one generation to the next (genes). And the principle of dominance (some allels are dominant and others recessive).
Watson and Crick
developed the double helix model of the structure of DNA - figured out the structure of DNA
first to see a cell (named it because of its looks)
two different alleles for the same trait
two identical alleles for a particular trait
genetic makeup of an organism
physical characteristics of an organism
cell with one set of chromosomes (sex cell)
cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
chromosomes - not sex ones
most efficient ways of feeding the most people
feeding them the crops instead of feeding the animals the crops and then feeding them the animals
down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
three copies of chromosome 21
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes, consumer
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own fodd from inorgranic compounds, producer
produces four genetically different haploid (sex) cells
produces two genetically identical diploid cells
climax species
species that uses succession in a given area and it proceeded in specific and predictables stages ending with a mature, stable community that didn't undergo anymore changes
the area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect the organism
features of cancer cells (they never stop reproducing)
they don't respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. as a result they form masses of cels called tumors
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals that a given environment can support
blood types
A, B, AB, O (pluses and minuses), AB+ universal reciever, O- universal giver
process by which a cell release large amounts of material
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
substances move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration
the diffusion of water
active transport
once equilibrum is reached to continue bringing lactose in, the cell must pump it using energy
passive transport
if you want it and it will diffuse in, just open doors and let it in gates
end products of photosynthesis
glucose and oxygen
saltiness of the oceans caused by
it's the lowest point, so all the minerals go there and they can't be evaporated
original carrier of hemophilia
can be traced to queen victoria
why are cells small
don't want to waste energy, too crowded, too much surface area makes it difficult to diffuse and keep water in and get rid of waste
below strength (less concentrated)
above strength (more concentrated)
An organsim that lives off the nutrients of another organism
A flesh-eating animal
An ecological community together with its environment
When animals move to another location for food or breeding
Organelles found in plant cells that perform photosynthesis
the structural and functional unit of all living organisms
basically the cell contents inside the cell membrane/wall, including the vacuole, nucleus, and cytoplasm.
in this kind of enviroment, osmosis causes water to flow out of the cell.
Control center of cell, contains DNA
Cell Wall
The exterior of the cell, holding everything in
Plant-eating organism
Organisms without a nucleus, such as bacteria
Organisms with a nucleus, found in plants, animals, and fungi
Hox Genes
Genes that dictate placement of body parts
Dominant gene
If a genetic trait is dominant, a person only needs to inherit one copy of the gene for the trait to be shown.
Recessive gene
If a genetic trait is recessive, a person needs to inherit two copies of the gene for the trait to be shown.
the position occupied by an organism (or group of organisms) within an ecosystem
the collection of organisms of a particular species living in an area
Biotic Factors
Living contributors in an enviroment such as animals and plants
Abiotic Factors
Non-Living contributors in an enviroment such as rain, wind, and soil quality
An act where one thing captures and feeds upon another thing
Carrying Capacity
The maximum number of organisms that an environment can support without downward effects
the act of striving against another organism for the purpose of achieving dominance or things such as water, food, and survival.
When a species dies out and none are left
the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy
Amino Acids
the basic structural building units of proteins
triplets of a combination of nucleotides A,G,C, or T
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make enzymes
the science of genes
Point Mutation
The changing of a single letter in a DNA sequence
Population Density
the number of organisms living per unit of an area
Biotic Potential
An estimate of the maximum capacity of living things to survive and reproduce under optimal environmental conditions
The transfer of genetic information from a DNA molecule to a messenger RNA.
The process by which a single-celled organism makes a copy of itself
called simple sugar, cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis
a form of carbohydrate, stores energy for cells
Sex Cells
also called Gametes, create offspring
change in DNA sequence that affects genetic information -chromosomes sometimes have genes moves around on them or have genes that are copied
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Food Supply
The amount of food avaiable in an ecosystem
population growth curve
the point where a population's growth begins flatening