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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Darwin gave us the idea of:
evolution
Evolution
change.
When Darwin did his work, he did realize that evolution was linked to _______.
inheritance
Darwin was at a disadvantage because he did not have any knowledge of _______.
genetics
Darwin was never able to satisfactorily explain ______.
how traits are passed to offspring
Darwin couldn't understand ____.
the sudden appearance of some traits
The Austrian monk and mathematics teacher who discovered genetics
Mendel
Mendel used _____ to discover genetics.
garden peas
Garden peas have __ chromosomes.
7
Independent assortment
What you get when traits are on separate chromosomes and are not linked. Mendel studied these kinds of traits. Whatever.
Mendel's experiements with genetics resulted in a __ to __ ratio for each trait.
3 to 1
Mendel published his results in ___.
1866.
Mendel is also credited as the first person to use ____.
statistical analysis
Mendel's work in genetics went unappreciated or undiscovered until ___.
1900
Was Mendel alive to see his work accepted?
No. He had died 16 years earlier.
True or false: Mendel said that traits were passed from parents through offspring.
True
Who worked on corn genetics?
Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock worked on a phenomenon called ______.
jumping genes
What are jumping genes?
Genes that move from one place to the next, instead of staying fixed on the loci of the chromosome
Barbara McClintock won the Nobel Prize for her work on
jumping genes
Population
an interbreeding group or organisms of the species at the same place, at the same time
In a population, organisms are unified and identified by the _____.
gene pool
Gene pool
the sum total of all the alleles of all the genes of all the individuals in the population
In terms of the age of the earth, people are in the gene pool for a very ___ period of time
short
Evolution
any change in the frequency of alleles in a gene pool from one generation to the next
Evolution works on:
the extent of variation within organisms
For evolution to occur, ____ must exist.
variation
Artificial selection
man decides what to breed and what not to (ex: cross-breeding lilies)
Artificial seletion can show the ___ in offpsring.
variety
What is an example of the results of artificial selection?
Dog breeds
_______ is selection that is brought on by nature.
Natural selection
The ____ organism is selected in natural selection.
whole
In artificial selection, humans can _______.
pick and choose traits
Four events that change the frequency of alleles:
mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, nonrandom mating
mutations
Changes in a gene that occur spontaneously
_______ is selection that is brought on by nature.
Natural selection
Four events that change the frequency of alleles:
mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, nonrandom mating
True or false: We can predict which genes will mutate.
False
In artificial selection, humans can _______.
pick and choose traits
True or false: If a mutation makes a dramatic change in the phenotype, then it's generally harmful.
True
The ____ organism is selected in natural selection.
whole
True or false: We can predict which genes will mutate.
False
mutations
Changes in a gene that occur spontaneously
Name things that can cause mutations.
X-rays
Ultraviolet rays
Radioactive compounds
Sprays
Pesticides
mutations
Changes in a gene that occur spontaneously
Each new human carries __ new mutations.
2
True or false: We can predict which genes will mutate.
False
There are 6 billion people in the world, so that makes about __ billion new mutations.
12 billion
gene flow
the movement of alleles into and out of the population.
There are 6 billion people in the world, so that makes about __ billion new mutations.
12 billion
gene flow
the movement of alleles into and out of the population.
There are 6 billion people in the world, so that makes about __ billion new mutations.
12 billion
Four events that change the frequency of alleles:
mutations, gene flow, genetic drift, nonrandom mating
True or false: If a mutation makes a dramatic change in the phenotype, then it's generally harmful.
True
Gene flow does what?
Introduces new alleles or changes gene frequency
The Founder Effect
when a small population breaks off from a larger popuation. It may not be genetically representative of the larger group. It increases in size and becomes a different population.
Genetic drift
can change the evolutionary process
mutations
Changes in a gene that occur spontaneously
True or false: We can predict which genes will mutate.
False
Genetic drift
can change the evolutionary process
Population bottleneck
When a population is drastically reduced in numbers by something other than natural selection
Northern Elephant Seal
killed off. Almost extinct. Laws passed to protect them. Now numbers in 30,000. Genes are different.
Polymorphism
two phenotypically distinct forms coexist in the same ?
Female choice
female decides who to mate with
How do we preserve and promote variety?
Sexual reproduction
Diploidy
a major factor in preserving variablility. It refers to individuals having two sets of chromosomes.
Ecology
The study of the interrelationships between organisms and thier physical environment and with each other.
___ are the biggest enemies of alligators.
Alligators.
An ecologist studies:
the natural world and anything in it, not necessarily living organisms. They could study water in relation to fish or soil. Study any level of nature.
Individual level of ecology
a certain organism
Population level of ecology
primary level of study
Communities
groups of populations of different species at the same place and time
Ecosystems
interactions between all organisms in communities and with their nonliving environment
Biosphere (ecosphere)
highest level of study; sum total of al the planet's ecosystems. Thin layer around Earth where organisms live. The whole earth can be called and ecosphere.
Living components
biotic
Nonliving components
abiotic
Abiotic factors
chemical or physical feature of the environment (water, light, temperature, oxygen, substrate)
Biotic factors
all living organisms
plants
bacteria
fungi
animals
algae
man
etc.
Population dynamics
The number of organisms within any given population
Only about __ % of sea turtles live to maturity.
1%
properties studied in populations
patterns of population growth
patterns of mortality
age structure
density
dispersion
reproductive potential
caring capacity
age structure
how many people live in each group
density
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
dispersion
the two- or three-dimensional arrangement of organisms. any level -- up, down, whatever.
Exponential growth
when full reproductive material is achieved.
True or false: Most organisms have high reproductive potential that is usually not achieved.
true
Carrying capacity
the number of people an area can support
Humans are increasing ___.
exponentially
Logistics growth
gradually starts out and increases, but slows as the object reaches carrying capacity
Density-independent factors
disease
environmental disasters
Density-dependent factors
availability of food, water, shelter
Three types of organisms:
producers
consumers
decomposers
Herbivores eat:
plants
Carnivores eat:
meat
Omnivores eat:
plants and meat
Organisms are limited by ___.
Population-dependent factors.
What are the producers?
green plants and algae
Primary consumers are ___.
Herbivores
Secondary consumers eat ___ consumers.
Primary
Secondary consumers can be __ or __.
carnivores or omnivores.
What are the decomposers?
fungi and bacteria
Food chain
a diagram that shows what's eating what at each level in order
Food web
interconnected food chains
Trophic level
a feeding level
Energy is passed on at each trophic level, but it ___.
decreases
Biomass
body weight
Organisms get about __% from feeding on the previous organism.
10%
As we go up the food chain, two things happen:
We go from smaller to larger organisms.
More numbers to fewer numbers or organisms.