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120 Cards in this Set

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Biology
Study of living things
Science
a way of seeking principles of order in the natural universe
What type of universe does science deal with?
natural
What two disciplines is science based on?
observation and interpretation
Goals of science are to find
demonstrable, objective truth based on observable evidence, free from personal bias
Major tenent of science
cause and effect
7 steps of the scientific method/scientific inquiry
1. question
2. induction
3. deduction
4. test the hypothesis
5. Repeat the tests to ensure consistency
6. interpret results
7. report objectively
Question
Pose a problem

Should be based on a observation
Induction
Gather pertinent information and state a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon

ex: "The fungus produces a substance that diffuses intot he jelly-like agar on which they are growing and inhibits that growth of the bacteria"
Deduction
Predict possible consequences of hypothesis
- going from a general principle to specific situation
- if, then statement

ex: "If the fungus produces a substance that diffuses into the agar, then a piece of the agar taken from near to, but not including the fungus should also inhibit bacterial growth."
Test the hypothesis
make observations
Repeat the tests
ensures consistency
Interpret results
Tentatively Accept the Hypothesis or

Reject and formulate a new hypothesis or

Modify and retest the hypothesis
Report objectively
publish in reputable journal, book, etc
- must be subject to peer reivew
General Outline for the scientific method
observations
hypothesis formulated
hypothesis tested
new observations
interpret new observations
results
2 rules for making hypothesis
testability and persimony
testability
must be able to be tested or proven false
parsimony
-occam's razor
-simplest is better
pattern of testing
hypothesis
theory
principle (law)
Hypothesis
educated guess
first approximation
theory
rigorously tested hypothesis that has broad explanatory power

not: rough guess or imperfectly known fact
principle
theory with broad explanatory power and broadly-based supporting evidence
methods of testing
a)additional obsrvations- make obs, are they consistent w/ the hypothesis? ex:astronomy
b)controlled experiment- set up precise conditions for obs
Two groups of test subjects
experimental
control

reason: comparison
variables
anything that can differ between group
independent variable
treatment
dependent variable
results
controlled variables
all other factors that might differ
sample size
large enough for a reliable outcome
minimum: between 30 and 50
assumptions
the universe exists
the universe can be rationally studied
physical laws explain physical phenomena
ex
limitations
no limitations!
no ethics
neutral on right/wrong

ethics are present in the conduct of scientists
science v. technology
science is the pursuit of knowledge
technology is the use of knowledge

greatly intertwined
commonalities in living things
metabolism
reproduction
growth and differentiation
ability to adapt and evolve
homeostasis
complex organization
response to stimuli
Hierarchy of living things
biosphere
biome
ecosystem
community
population
organism
organ system
organ
tissue
cells
organelles
macromolecules
molecule
atoms
subatomic particles
unifying concept of biology
evolution
ecology
study of interactions of organisms with their biotic and abiotic environement
environmentalism
social/political movement to raise concerns about env issues
ecologists study...
the interactions of organisms with their environment

they focus on the organisms to the biosphere
Populations are characterized by
dispersion
growth
survivorship
age structure
dispersion
distribution in space and time
range
there is likely to be a clumped distribution across the range
growth definition
change in population size over time
positive- population size increases
negative- population size decreases
survivorship
patterns of mortality
age structure
number of individuals at various ages
range
geographic area in which species can occur
growth is dependent on
-# of individuals in the population
-capacity of organisms (rate of reproduction)
availability of required resources
growth formula
growth/unit time

= additions-losses/ unit time
logistic growth factors
r- reproduction capacity
n- number or reproductive individuals
reproduction capacity
average number of offspring produced
length of time to reproduction
logistic growth
Growth (G) = rate or reproduction (r) X number of individuals (N)

growth is initially slow due to population size- grows exponentially
J curve
logistic growth curve
initial slow or lag phase of growth
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that an environment can sustain

K
growth equation, including carrying capacity
G=rN(K-N)/K
typical pattern of growth resulting from G=rN(K-N)/K
early- lag phase
middle- log phase
late- stable phase
lag phase
slow growth
log phase
very rapid, exponential growth
stable phase
stability in population size
at K
Is carrying capacity static or dynamic?
dynamic
limiting factor
can set K
bottleneck effect
Outcomes if N > K
Population size drops to K
excess despoils the environment, reduces K, and population falls to the lower K
environmental stress that causes extinction or near extinction
cohort
group of individuals born at the same time
three patterns of survivorship
type I- low infant mortality
type II- constant mortality
type III- high infant mortality
type I
low infant mortality
chance of dying highest in old age
type II
constant mortality
chance of dying constant over lifetime
type III
high infant mortality
chance of dying highest in infancy
is survivorship static or dynamic
dynamic
life cycle strategy extremes
weedy
stable
weedy life cycle strategy
type III survivorship curve
many offspring, little or no parental input
usually smaller organism
stable life cycle strategy
type I survivorship curve
fewer offspring
larger organisms
much parental input
three ecologically relevant age classes
prereproductive
reproductive
postreproductive
is age structure dynamic or static?
dynamic
communities
biological assemblage of populations of various species living and interacting at a given place and time
niche
role of an organism in an environment
"profession"
habitat
environment in which the organism lives
characteristics
diversity
stability
structure
diversity
variety of kinds of organisms
species niches = number of species
dominant species
greatest abundance or biomass
stability
ability to return to origonal state
keystone species
important in maintaining community structure and diversity
removal may be catastrophic
keep species in check
structure
vertical zonation
mutualism
*species interations*
both species benefit
ex: lichen
ex: intestinal bacteria in humans
commensalism
*species interations*
one benefits, other no effect
ex: spanish moss on a tree
ex: eyelash mites
parasitism
*species interations*
one harmed (host), one benefits (parasite)
predation
*species interations*
(+/- and +)
predator = eater
prey = eatee
plant adaption as prey defenses
chemical deterrents
physical deterrents
mutualism
animal adaption as prey defenses
speed
vision
chemicals
micry
positive aspects of to prey of predation
get rid of diseased and debilitated individuals
controls population
competition
*species interations*
(-,-)
detrimental to both species
results when there are limited resources (niche overlap)
competitive exclusion
*outcomes of competition*
one species drives the other to extinction
competitive equilibrium
*outcomes of competition*
species co-exist in an environment
niche separation (non-overlapping parts)
ex: crayfish
ecosytems
all biotic and abiotic creatrues
trophic levels (definition)
feeding niches
autotrophs
"self feeding"
- photosynthetic (plants)
- chemosynthetic (bacteria)
heterotrophs
"other feeding"
- outside source of organic substances in food
movement of energy
ultimate source = sun
non-cyclic: all incoming energy eventually radiated back to space as light or heat

shows the movement from level to level of the food chain
food chain levels
primary producers
consumers
decomposers
primary producers
autotrophs
fix light energy into chemical energy as organics
consumers
heterotrophs
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
decomposers
fungi, bacteria

feed on wastes and decaying matter
10% rule
10% of energy entering a trophic level is available to the next level
nutrient cycling
the use of mateirals by organisms
(substances like carbon, oxygen, water, phosphorous, nitrogen compounds, etc.)
cyclical- reuse of nutrients by organisms

the role of decomposers is crucial: releases nutrients into the environment for reuse
resevoir
makes nutrients available to organisms
source
does no make nutrients available to organisms
types of nutrient cycles
gaseous
geological
combined
gaseous nutrient cycling
reservoir is atmosphere
ex: carbon cycle
geological nutrient cycling
reservoir is soil
ex: calcium and phosphorous
combined nutrient cycling
resevoir is both atmosphere and soil
ex: nitrogen
biological magnification
may occur as substances move up the food chain
occurs with substances that are observed by organisms and do not break down/excreted rom the body
biomes
major vegetation zones of the earth
there are characteristic life forms in each biomes
major biomes
tundra
tiaga (northern coniferous forest)
grasslands
temperate forests
tropical forests
deserts
biomes are determined by interactions of (3 things)
climate
geography
soils
climate
average weather of the course of several years

major factors are temperature and precipitation

affected by latitude, positions of continents, and geographical features such as mountains and plains.
causes of climate
1) directness of isolation
2) tilt of earth at 23 degrees on axis
3) prevailing winds
4) ocean currents
5) geography
directness of isolation
how direct the incoming sunlight is at a particular point on Earth
due to the earth being a sphere
tilt of earth at 23 degrees on axis
leads to seasonality
prevailing winds
due to uneven heatin of earth's surface and rotation of earth
ocean currents
circulates in huge circular gyres
carry heat from equator to poles
What coast is warmer? east or west? why?
east- water goes from equator to pole
geography
positions of continents direct ocean currents
rain on windward side of mountain
moist air forced upward
adiabatic cooling
wet climate
rain on leeward side
adiabatic warming
dry climate
rain shadow