Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/110

Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of all living things
1. Composed of one or more cells
2. Can reproduce
3. Acquire/use energy
4. Grow and develop
5. Respond to their enviroment to maintain homeostasis
Water molecules attract other molecules
This is called _.
Hydrogen bonding
Water molecules attract other __ molecules.
polar
Water molecules repel _ molecules.
nonpolar
Example of polar and nonpolar molecules
polar - water, sugar
nonpolar - oil
Polar molecules are _.
hydrophilic
Nonpolar molecules are _.
Hydrophobic
Water absorbs a great deal of _ before temperature increases
heat
Why does water absorb heat?
Added energy disrupts hydrogen bonding between molecules, not effecting molecules themself
Because ice floats _.
it can insulate water beneath it
Cohesion:
has capacity to resist rupturing under tension
___ causes high surface tension
hydrogen bonding
Solvent
substance in which something in dissolved
Because water molecules are polar _.
ions and other polar solutes dissolve in it
Positive parts of solute are surrounded by _.
negative parts of solvent
Negative parts of solute are surrounded by _.
politice parts of solvent
When NaCl is dissolved in water ____ surround ion.
"spheres of hydration"
The pH scale is based on ___.
Ion concentration
pH of body fluids
7.35 - 7.45
Example of strong acid
HCl
Example of weak acid
HC(2)H(3)O(2)
Strong acids ___.
completely dissociate in water
Weak acids ___.
do not completely dissociate in water
Buffer:
resists slight changes in pH
Buffers are formed from what?
Weak acid (or base) and salt of that acid (or base)
What is an example of a buffer?
Acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer
If excess acid in a buffer, _.
Hydrogen ions combine with acetate to form acetic acid
If excess base in buffer, _.
Hydroxide ions neutralized by hydrogen ions from acetic acid
Amino acids:
subunits of proteins
Amino acids have two groups:
amino group and carboxyl group
Amino acids have two groups bonded to ___.
alpha carbon
Amino group:
-NH(2)
Carboxyl Group:
-COOH
Amino acids act as _.
buffers
The carboxyl group can _ a hydrogen atom.
donate
The amino group can _ a hydrogen.
accept
Amino acids link together by _.
dehydration synthesis
Dehydration synthesis:
Carboxyl carbon of one amino acid bonds to an amino nitrogen of a second
__ can contain hundreds of amino acids
polypeptide
Backbone of polypeptide chain contains repeating sequence of ___.
N-C-C-N-C-C
__ groups extend from backbone in polypeptide
R
Primary structure:
sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure:
result of hydrogen bonding in backbone
Types of secondary structures
alpha helix
beta pleated sheet
Tertiary structure:
interaction of side chains
Interactions of the side chains in amino acids
1. Hydrogen bonding between R groups of amino acid subunit
2. Ionic attractions between R gorups of opposite charge
3. Disulfide bonds/bridges that link sulfur atoms of two cysteine amino acids
Quaternary Structure:
interaction among polypeptide chains
example of quaternary strucutre
hemoglobin
Denaturation:
change in shape or biological activity of protein
What causes denaturation:
changes in 3-dimensional structure
-heat, pH changes, exposure to certain chemicals
functions of nucleic acids
1. store and transmit hereditary information
2. determine the proteins that a cell will manufacture
Two classes of nucleic acids (or examples)
DNA and RNA
DNA ___.
makes up genes
RNA helps direct ___.
synthesis of protein
RNA does what?
1. Carry information from nucleus to ribosome
2. Assembles amino acids in correct sequence
3. Some (ribozymes) act as biological catalyst (aka enzymes)
Nucleic acids are polymers of _.
nucleotides
Each nucleic acid consists of
-5-carbon sugar (Deoxyribose in DNA and Ribose in RNA)
-Phosphate group
-Nitrogenous base
The individual units of the nucleic acid are held together by __.
phosphodiester bonds
Each carbon atom contains _.
valence electrons
How does a carbon atom complete its valence shell?
by forming four covalent bonds
Carbon atoms bond to other carbon atoms to form ___.
large, complex molecules (straight chains, branches, rings)
Isomers:
compounds with same molecular formulas but different strucutres/properties
Structural isomers:
differ in arrangement of atoms
Geometric isomers:
idntical in arrangement of bonds but different in arrangement in space of atoms/groups of atoms
Example of geometric isomers
cis/trans arrangements
Stereoisomers:
molecules in which part are mirror images of the other
Polymers:
large molecule (macromolecule) formed by jointing together many smaller units (monomers)
Polymers can be broken down to monomers by _.
hydrolysis
Monomers are linked together by _.
dehydration synthesis
Carbohydrates:
sugars, starches, cellulose -[CH(2)O](n)
Types of carbohydrates
monosaccharides (simple sugars) and disaccharides
Monosaccharides:
simple sugars
Disaccharides
Double sugars formed by linking two monosaccharides
Most abundant monosaccharide
glucose
fructose is a structural isomer of _.
glucose
galactose is a stereoisomer of _.
glucose
Maltose =
alpha-glucose + alpha-glucose
Sucrose =
glucose + fructose
Lactose =
glucose + galactose
Polysaccharides:
polymers of monosaccharide monomers (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
Starch:
consists of alpha 1-4 linkages
starch occurs in two forms
amylose and amylopectin
amylose:
unbranched chain
amylopectin:
branched chain
Glycogen:
animal starch, more branched
animal starch, more branched
glycogen
cellulose:
mnay glucose molecules joined together
what does cellulose consist of?
beta 1-4 linkages
Lipids:
fats, oils, waxes
Lipids are nonpolar or polar?
nonpolar
Uses of lipids
1. energy storage
2. strucuture (cell membrane)
3. signaling molecules
Strcuture of fats
one to three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
Fatty acids consist of :
1. long chain of carbon atoms
2. Carboxyl group at one end (bonds to glycerol)
3. Glycerol is a 3-carbon hydrocarbon
Saturated fatty acids contain only ___.
single bonds between carton atoms
Unsaturated fatty acids contain ___.
at least one double bond
Saturated fatty acids are found in
animals
unsaturated fatty acids are found in
plants
Structure of phospholipids
1. Glycerol backbone
2. Two fatty acids
3. Phosphate + polar group (dissolves in water)
Phospholipids are the ___.
main part of cell membrane
Sterols:
lipids with no fatty acids
Sterols all have:
backbone of four fused carbon rings
Most common sterol:
cholesterol
Cholesterol is converted into:
1. Vitamin D (bones/teeth)
2. Steroids (sex hormones)
3. Bile salts (digest fats in small intestine)
___ are nucleic acids that also act as biological catalysts.
Ribozymes
Nucleic acids are polymers of individual units known as __.
nucleotides
The covalent bonds that connect amino acids in a protein molecule are known as _.
peptide bonds
The name of the process whereby large molecules (polymers) are split into smaller molecules (monomers) by the addition of water
hydrolysis
An example of a disaccharide, or double sugar
sucrose, maltose
The highly-branches polysaccharide found in animals (and sometimes called animal starch)
glycogen
A structural isomer of glucose is the monosaccharide _.
fructose