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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the purpose of the innr membrane of the mitochondria?
it isolates protons (H+) from the inner compartment
How is Acetyl-CoA produced?
fats, proteins and lipids
What is the lipid-soluble and freely movable molecule that when the flow of electrons from NADH reductase to the cytochromes happens?
_______ is a molecule with 4 C atoms and one central double bond. Succinic acid oxidizes into it.
What is the ATP formation in the mitochondria based on?
chemiosmotic principle
If the cell is not low in ATP what does Acetyl-CoA do?
generates lipids
_________are proton pumps that acidify the outer compartment of mitochondria.
What then is malic acid dehydrogenated into?
oxaloacetic acid
How many ATP does citric acid cylce end up with?
What are the two types of reactions in the Krebs cycle?
Preparation and energy extraction
How many ATP does glycolysis make in the end?
_____is one of the most important metabolites.
What is harvested for ATP in the mitochondria?
high proton pressure
Is the change in free energy enough to change NAD?
no but it does reduce FAD Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
How many ATP does pyrumate decarboxylation end up with?
What is NAD reduced to in the last of the reductions during the tricarboxylic acid?
The production of energy preceeds _________
Citric Acid cycle
What does Acetyl-CoA do if the energy content of a given cell is low?
it will produce the ATP needed
How does the Krebs cycle start?
starts with the irreversible condensation of Acetyl-CoA to the C4 molecule Oxaloacetic Acid to form C6 molecule (citric acid) which contains 3 carboxyl groups (-COOH)
What concludes the preparation stage?
The Isomerization of citric acid to Isocitric acid
What is fumaric acid converted in to and how?
Malic acid and it is done by incorporation of water
What is formed when multienzyme leads to decarboxylation and oxidation by NAD?
What is formed when isocitric acid is oxidized by transfering H to NAD then by removing CO2?
Ketoglutaric acid
How does the reduction equivalent convert to ATP?
by transfering their electrons to an electron transport system which includes the enzymes Q, Cytochromes and oxygen
What does glycolysis and most of the Krebs cycle's yeild?
Reduction equivalents NADH+H+ and FADH2
What promotes the Krebs cycle
high levels of ADP
What is oxidatively decarboxylated in the enery extraction?
isocitric acid
What is the citric Acid cycle inhibited by?
HIGH LEVELS OF: ATP (which inhibts first decarboxylation)
Succinyl-CoA (inhibits citrate formation) and oxaloacetate (inhibits fumarate)
What is the result of the electron transport?
it pumps protons into the space between the two mitochondrial membranes
what is localized in the inner membrane of the mitocondria?
the electron transport chain
What drives the ATP formation?
the pH of the proton or the proton gradient
How many ATP's does NADH+H+ AND FADH2?
NADH+H+ yields 3 ATP and FADH2 yeilds 2 ATP