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179 Cards in this Set

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First law of thermodynamics.
A. Energy cannot be created of destroyed, but it can be transformed from one form to another/ Ability to do work.
Second law of thermodynamics.
Energy cannot by changed from one form to another without the loss of usable energy/ Transformation results in conversion of some energy to heat.
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion. A rock hanging from the edge of a cliff.
Potential Energy
Stored energy. Capacity to do work.
Chemical energy.
Food. It is composed of organic molecules such as carbhydrates, proteins, and fat.
Mechanical Energy
A type of kinetic Energy because it runs off of chemical energy. You eat and therefore you have energy.
Heat
Solar Energy/Carbohydrate synthesis.
Entropy
Measure of disorder/ with each energy transformation, you lose energy from the system.
Metabolism
All the chemical reactions that occur in a cell where energy is transferred.
Released energy
Exergonic
Required energy
Endergonic
Degradation
Breaking Chemical bonds/Endergonic: Requires energy.
Synthetic
making Chemical bonds/ exergonic: releasing energy.
Metabolic Pathway
A series of chemical reactions/ A series of linked reactions.
Photosynthesis
Endergonic/ Requires energy
Cell respiration
Exergonic/ releases energy: Making ATP
Coupled Reactions
The energy released by an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction.
ATP=
X-P+ADP>X+ATP/ Mostly Sugars
Phosphorylation
Constantly recycled/ one way to activate an enzyme
Substrates
The reactants in an enzymatic reaction.
Function 1 of ATP= Chemical Work.
ATP supplies the energy needed to synthesize macromolecules that make up the cell, and therefore the organism.
Function 2 of ATP= Transport Work.
ATP supplies the energy needed to pump substances across the plasma membrane.
Function 3 of ATP = Mechanical Work.
ATP supplies the energy needed to permit muscles to contract.
ATP is a carrier of energy in cells. It is the common energy currency because it supplies energy for many different types of reactions.
True.
Proton Pump:
ADP+P/ Transferred across the membrane, up hill if you will, by electron energy to make ATP. Hydrogen Ions/ Food is your major source of energy force.
Enzyme
Protein catalyst which helps reaction of chemicals. They interact with chemicals fitting together with other molecules.
Constantly Recycled on substrate level. One way to activate and enzyme/ Signaling molecules received by membrane receptors often turn to kinasis, which activate enzymes by phosphorylating them. Some hormones act in this manner.
Phosphorylation.
Chemiosmosis:
Major ATP synthesis. The production of ATP due to hydrogen Ion Gradient across the membrane. Any membrane in a cell.
Two kinds of proteins:
1. ATP synthase complex.
2. Protein Pump.
Diffusion:
Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration: it requres no energy adn tends to lead to an equal distribution.
Electron Transport System:
A series of membrane bound carriers that pass electrons from one carrier to another. High energy electrons are delivered to the system, and low energy electrons leave it. Every time electrons are transferred: A new carrier is released. This enregy is ultimately used to produce ATP molecules.
NADP+
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
Factor of the electron transport system =
1.
1. Temp-Increase in temp will increase the rate of reaction. To high of temp will cease the reaction.
Factor 2:
PH-Acidity: The ability to donate hydrogen Ions: Base: Absorbs of takes in hydrogen ions. Neutral = Water.
Factor 3.
Denaturation- Unfolding proteins/ PH. The further from neutral, the more reactive.
Factor 4:
Pepsin = Stomach = 2 on PH chart which is very acidic. Trypsin = Digestive track is slightly basic which is 8 on the PH.
All enzymes are adapted to survive in certain areas of your body.
True.
Regulators.
The end product that usually becomes the end product.
Inhibition:
Occurs when an active enzyme is prevented from combining with its substrate.
Feedback inhibition:
Occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway binds to the first enzyme of the pathway, preventing the reactant from binding and the reaction from occurring.
Competitive inhibition:
Substrate mimics/ competes for active site-reversible.Will not have a chemical reaction.
Non competitive inhibition:
Second site on enzyme allosteric site interacts with inhibitor-changes shape of active site-reversible.
Activators:
Enhance rate of reaction.
Cofactors:
Ions of inorganic chemicals such as Zinc, Copper, Iron, Monobelniums.
Endergonic reaction:
Making a bond by joining together.
Exergonic reaction:
Breaking up the product.
Metabolism:
Energy goes through an organism in a one way direction. Major metabolic pathways are coupled reactions within.
Coenzymes:
Organic molecules, Vitamins, Zinc, Copper, Iron, Monobeleniums./ Energy needed to work.
Photosynthesis:
Transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate. Light energy into chemical energy.
Light Energy:
Light particles are named protons. They travel in a wave. Describing the movement of light in wavelengths.
Electromagnetic Spectrum:`
Visible Light/ Available light. Cannot Use ultraviolet rays due to being too strong.
Electromagnetic spectrum is measured How?
Nanometers.
Nanometers:
One in a billionth/Wavelenghts.
Where does the absorption spectrum take place.
Where the lines peak.
Pigments:
Chlorophyll a/b---Carotenoids.Molecules that absorb wavelengths of light. The reflect or transmit the other wavelengths.
Chlorophylls and other pigments reside?
Within the Membranes of the thylakoids.Capable of absorbing solar energy.
Chlorphyll a/b absorb?
Violet, Blue, and Red light better than the light of other colors.
Carotenoids:
Absorbs light energy in the plant.
Carotenoids absorb.
Light in the violet-blue-green range. Noticable in the fall, when chlorophyll breaks down
What pushes through the stoma?
Carbon Dioxide.
Grana:
Flattened sacs called Thylakoids, resembling piles of seeds.
Water enters a leaf be way of?
Leaf veins.
Raw materials of photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide and water.
Carbon Dioxide enters by way of?
Stomata.
Carbon Dioxide is enzymatically reduced to a?
Carbohydrate such as glucose.
Two sets of reactions?
A. 1st Reaction.
Light reactions, which produce ATP and NADPH, occur in the thylakoid membrane.
B. 2nd Reaction?
Calvin Cycle. Molecules used to reduce Carbon Dioxide to a Carbohydrate, thus breaking down, such as glucose.
Photosystem:
Group of 250-500 pyramid molecules working together to capture light energy.
Chlorophyll A converts light energy to Chemical energy, which loses a high energy of electrons going down the?
Electron Transport System.
What captures the lost energy.
ATP.
Proton Pumps run the?
ATP synthase Complex.
Electron Structures?
Blue within the membrane, provide the source of energy to produce ATP Synthase.
NADPH and ATP works with the?
Calvin Cycle to produce Carbon Dioxide to Carbohydrates to make sugars.
Calvin Cycle releases?
P-Gal-Glucose/ Endergonic.
Calvin Cycle runs how many times?
Three times.
Glucose has how many carbon Sugars?
Six.
Glucose is the most common sugar in Photosynthesis.
T/F.
True.
Fixation Adds carbons to sugars such as?
C5 to C6. Carbon Dioxide reduction.
Carbon Dioxide enters by way of?
Stomata.
Carbon Dioxide is enzymatically reduced to a?
Carbohydrate such as glucose.
Two sets of reactions?
A. 1st Reaction.
Light reactions, which produce ATP and NADPH, occur in the thylakoid membrane.
B. 2nd Reaction?
Calvin Cycle. Molecules used to reduce Carbon Dioxide to a Carbohydrate, thus breaking down, such as glucose.
Photosystem:
Group of 250-500 pyramid molecules working together to capture light energy.
Chlorophyll A converts light energy to Chemical energy, which loses a high energy of electrons going down the?
Electron Transport System.
What captures the lost energy.
ATP.
Proton Pumps run the?
ATP synthase Complex.
Electron Structures?
Blue within the membrane, provide the source of energy to produce ATP Synthase.
NADPH and ATP works with the?
Calvin Cycle to produce Carbon Dioxide to Carbohydrates to make sugars.
Calvin Cycle releases?
P-Gal-Glucose/ Endergonic.
Calvin Cycle runs how many times?
Three times.
Glucose has how many carbon Sugars?
Six.
Glucose is the most common sugar in Photosynthesis.
T/F.
True.
Fixation Adds carbons to sugars such as?
C5 to C6. Carbon Dioxide reduction.
3 Carbon Dioxides goes in Calvin Cycle: What comes out?
P-Gal--Glucose
Glucose can convert into?
Fructose, also a six carbon sugar.
Fructose can convert into?
Sucrose.
Sucrose is used mostly for?
Plant storage; away from light reactions.
Sucrose can be converted into?
Starch.
Starch is found mostly in?
Roots, as in beets or carrots.
Cellulose is a sugar which?
Makes up the cell walls for plants/ supports structures.
C3 Plants?
Calvin cycle only. C carbon sugar. Examples would be; Most grains, peas, and oak trees.
C3 plants usually evolve in?
Temperated Climates
C4 Plants?
Stores Carbon Dioxide Temporarily. Examples would be Grass, Corn, Sugar Cane, and Sorghum.
C4 Plants generally found in?
Tropical Climates
C4 Plants make sugar only in the?
Bundle Sheath Cell.
Cam Plants?
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Examples would be; Xerophyte. Succulent water filled leafs.
Cam Plants evolve in?
Deserts.
Cam plants open Stomas at ____ and close during the ____?
A. Night.
B. Day.
As the heat goes up; The stoma will close to hold water. Early in the spring the stoma opens to let Carbon Dioxide in to make sugar and to take in water. T/F.
True.
Light Independent reactions produce ATP and capture electrons as NADPH. T/F.
True.
Light is captured by?
Chlorophylls and Carotenoids
Pigments also boost electrons to higher energy levels by product of?
Oxygen.
Energy of products of light reactions (ATP and NADPH is used to fix?
Carbon Dioxide it to sugars in a set of synthetic reactions called Calvin Cycle.
Cell Respiration:
Cellular process that requires oxygen and give off Carbon Dioxide.
Cell Respiration mostly involves the complete breakdown of?
Glucose of Carbon Dioxide adn water.
Cell Respiration used to provide energy for energy requiring reactions in cells as well as transformation into?
Mechanical/ Kinetic Energy.
Hundreds of ____________ in one cell.
Mitochondria.
Anaerobic:
Without oxygen. Does not require oxygen.
Aerobic:
Have oxygen/ Transfer reaction.
Aerobic is located in the ______ and is involved in the ____ _____ _____.
A. Mitochondria.
B. Citric Acid Cycle.
NADH has enough energy to make?
3 ATP.
FADH only has enough energy level to produce?
2 ATP.
ATP totals ___ to ___ made totaling ____ to ____
A. 32 TO 34
B. 36 TO 38
Ions---ATP Channel protein releases?
ATP synthase complex.
Free energy of ATP is?
-7.3 Kcal/Mole About 40%.
Glucose under combustion =
-762Kcal/Mole// Carbon Dioxide + Water.
Lactate Bacteria-C3=
Anaerobic Bacteria. Muscle cell in animal cells.
Lactate eventually breaks down when?
When oxygen is available.
Alcohol//C2
Carbon dioxide. Yeast Aerobic or fermentation. Such as bread and alcohol.
Fermentation consists of.
Glycosis followed by reduction of Pyruvate by NADH to either lactate or alcohol and Carbon Dioxide. Anaerobic.
Proteins- Amino Acids.
Deamination which runs through the kidneys and releases waste products/ NH3.
Fatty Acids= C2n, Meaning any number, but usually?
16 to 18.
Exercise burns the glucose first and then?
Glycogen.
Aerobic cell respiration is the method by which cells obtain energy, (ATP); through a series of?
Exergonic reactions that release electrons.
Aerobic Cell respiration takes place in the _______
Cytoplasm.
Most energy produced ATP is from?
Chemiosmosis during electron transport.
Aerobic Respiration uses oxygen in the final step of?
Electron Transport.
Most organic chemicals when broken down by this process yield _____, _____, ______, and _______
A. Energy
B. Carbos
C. proteins
D. Lipids
Aerobic Cell Respiration releases much more energy than does?
Fermentation.
Characteristics of a virus:
Noncellular, No Cell membrane/ No enzymes, or chemical reactions. Organisms that live off of other organisms.
All viruses are?
Pathogens.
Capsid:
Proteins recgonize hosts.
Nucleic acid. DNA/ RNA. Could be either.
True
Envelope:
Only in a few viruses which are found only in amimals.
Spikes recgonize?
Hosts. Piece of host plasma.
Shapes of viruses. Three?
A. Pyhedrial
B. Helical Virus- RNA Capsid
C. Bacteriophage
Replication/ Copying particles.
Lyctic Cycel:
Self copied quickly, killing the host, this is the strategy. Mass members.
2nd replication:Lysogenic cycle?
Hiding out/ Replicated with the host cell and builds up a population. Both cycles.
3rd Replication:
Animal Viruses: Some with envelopes.
Amimal viruses.
1st.
Cancer causing: Mononucleosis, burkitis, and lymphoma. Uncontrolled cell division, causing tumors.
2nd Virus/ Retrovirus:
HIV immune system is not affective with this specific virus.
Animal viruses actually bring viruses into the cell. Minus the envelope. Extocytosis, Uncoating. T/F.
True.
Reverse Transcriptase:
Changing DNA into RNA. Cells are called T-Cells.
Vaccines/Antibodies
Are specifically attached to surface markers.
Bacteria: Microbes or microorganisms.
1/1000 species are pathogens.
Prokaryotic Cells:
Organisms emerge before karyotic cells. 1/10 the size of a euokaryotic cell.
Only feature which allows bacteria to swim?
Flagellum
Outer most layer/capsule
Sticky sugary layer which the cell secretes and causes plaque.
2nd Layer:
The cell wall which is a support structure. Made of sugars and amino acids.
Next is the?
Plasma membrane. A way to regulate the cell in and out.
Nucleoid:
DNA, arrange in a single ring chromosome.
Plasmid
Easily traded back and forth within a cell.
Ribosomes:
Protein factories found in all cells.
Reproduction:
A Sexual/ One chromosome.
Binary fussion:
Salmonella in 10 minutes/ Lepros within 3 weeks.
Genetic exchange.
Conjugation/ cytoplasmic connection. Copying and transferring plasmid.
Mutation:
Accumulate at a faster rate, for there is only one copy for each gene.
Endospores.
Resting stage for bacteria.
_____ is toxic to endospores.
Oxygen
Tetnus:
Lock jaw. Produces a toxin causing parylisis of muscles. Also aerobic.
Botulism:
Canned foods. Food posioning. Anaerobic bacteria.
Nutrition/ Autotrophs.
Organism that is self feeding.
Photosynthetic:
Light energy/ use carbon dioxide as a carbon source. Found mostly an aquatic environments.
Chemosynthetic: Typically found in soil or water.
Chemicals for a source of energy. Inorganic chemicals. Typically Ions.
Strips_____ converges into____which plants use and also breaks down rocks.
A. Nitrogen
B. Nitrite
C. Nitrate
Heterotrophs:
Uses organic material such as sugar adn proteins.
Symbiotic mutualistic, meaning living together:
Beneficial to both
Symbiotic Parasitic:
Beneficial to one and harmful to the other.
Pathogens causes diseases which cause harm to host and beneficial to the other.
T/F.
True.