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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Parts of scientific method
data analysis
a series of logical 'either/or' predictions tested by experiments to reject one alternative
scientific theory
key characteristics of life
growing, active-movement, has energy, consumes energy, produce
examples of life
potted house plant, stalk of celery, fertilized robin eggs
examples of non-life
stalk of celery, carrot from rainbow foods, 2 by 4 from menards, fossil fish, popcorn before you pop it
more key characteristics of life
unique property; property that can be used to identify life. distinguishes life from non-life
define and give examples of key characteristics of life
basic properties of life
1. complexity-intricate, complicated
2. movement- change inposition from one place to another
3. respnse to stimulation- responds to an agent, action or condtion taht causes activies
Deine life
biology is the study of life. Life-not easy to deine, difference between life/death at cellular level vs. entire organism. Cells die continuously, but organisms still lives. Transplants- entire organ removed from one person, given to another
A historical view of death (how we were able to tell when a human-being was still alive)
heart beat
brain waves
death-like life- isn't neatly defined
why is classification needed and how this relates to the plague
plague killed 25% of European population in 14th Century. Need to identify and name it. Yersinia Pestis- bacterium carried by fleas of rodent like rats.
List biological categories from most general to most specific
biological categories, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
average global temp. is increasing. average global temp. is increaisng and humans are causing this
global warming
climate change
does not imply that climate changes the same way for every region of the Earth. Some scientist groups use term to mean human induced increase in temperature. other groups use term to simply indicate temperature is increasing.
refute common myths about Earth's temp. rising since 1880s.
4.6 million years ago
there can't be a warming trend because- the next few weeks will be really cold.
winter 03 and 04 were coldest on record in northeastern U.S.
The earth must be examined over long periods of time.
the cause of warming in the past does not have to be the cause of warming now; many differ between periods
list and explain the ways temperature can be measured indirctly
prior to 1850- ocean sediment cores. calcium carbonates and silica- depositing organisms 9lived at ocean surface and on the floor. Organisms contain oxygen. comparing two forms of oxygen allows precition of water temperature since they act differently at differnt temps)
list the greenhouse gases and human sources
carbon dioxide- fossil fuel conbustion- deforestation. ZSolid waste and wood buring
Methane- rice paddies. domestication of ruminatns (animals genrally eat grasses) decompostions in land fills.
Ozone- trap heat. Automobiles and factories- block UV ray. Create Smog
Nitrous Oxide-fossil fuel combusion. buring solid waste. fertilizer and nylon.
Explain how general carbon dioxide and methane have changed in the past 200,000 years
carbon diozide- steady then sharp increase last 100 years
methane- same pattern
gases remain in teh atmosphere for 12-120 years
what do scientists agree upon regarding climate change (temperaterue and greenhouse gases in particular)
temperature of earth is increasing. very likely 9/10 chance human induced greenhouse gases are causing global warming
list scientists prdictions for temperature rises, sea level rise, heat waves and heavy rains by the year 2100
temperatures likely to rise 3.6-8.1 degrees F by 2100. Eu says schange above 2 degrees C will be dangerous. Sea level will rise 11-16.9 inches by 2100. Very likely that extreme heat waves and heavy rain will become more frequent
list the function of insulin and where it comes from
insulin- hormone (messager protein) made in pancrease- beta cells, tell body cells to take in glucose (sugar). body cells convert glucose into ATP. Excess glucose stored by live as glycogen. In a diabetic with medication/management problems- high glucose in blood and urine
list cellular repiration reactions
1. ATP comes form process of CR. body cells use ATP as energy source. Glose oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy
all chemical reaction that occur in your body
what order will your body choose to use carbs, proteins and fats for energy
carbs, fats then proteins
list possible causes of diatbetes
genetics/family history
don't eat processed gains
viral bacterial
drug damage to pancreas
list symptons of diatbetes
weight loss
nausea vomting
extreme thirst
frequent urination
blurry vision
impotency (men)
risk factors of diabetes
age, heredity, exercise, obesity, ethnicty
risk factor
things that put you at risk for getting a disease, doesn't mean you will get it.
what does food provide for yoru body
energy source. source of essential molecules not made by the body
put the nutrients in order (simple carbs, complex, protem and fats) from the one that provides body cells with energy fastest to slowest
fat and protein then complex carbs then simple carbs
explain the recommended diet for diabetics
keep blood sugar level steady. balance carbohydrates with proteins. stay away from refined and simple carbohydrates- go form complex carbs. since insulin is low or artificially introudced with injections, you can't overload it with glucose
treatments.ways to manage diabetes
diet, regular exercise, insulin injectiosn/pumps
list what types of food you should eat and how often
At most meals in abundance
-whole grains foods, plant oils, vegetables
2-3 times a day - fruit
1-3 times a day- nuts, legumes, dairy
0-2 times per day - fish, poultry and eggs
sparingly- red meat, butter, white rice, white bread, potatoes, white pasta and sweets
using general principles to explain specific observations, is the reason of mathematics, philosophy, politics and ethics
dedutice reasoning
first beame popular about 400 years ago. looking at the world to understand how it works. it is from observations taht scientist determine the principles that govern our physical world
inductive reasoning
have been manufactured in large amounts since htey were invented in 1920s, largely for use as collants in air conditioners, propellants in aerosols and foaming agent in styrofoam
chlorofluorocarhobs CFCS
scientific investigations can be said to have six stes
observing what is going on
forming a set hypotheses
makign preditions
testing them
carrnign out controls
forming conclusions after elimainating one or more of the hypotheses
each factor that might influence a process
a collection of related hypotheses that have been tested many times and now rejected is called a
cells were discovered by
orbert hooke
one of hte basic ideas in biology, is the foundation for understand the reproduction and groth of all organisms
the cell theory
what are two major kinds of cells
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
_- have relatively unfiorm cytoplasm that is not subdivided by interior membranes into separate comparments
all bacteria and archasa are _________all other organisms are ________
the chemical bonds in carbon diozide molecules transmit radiant energy from the sun but trap the longer wavelength of infrared light or heat and prevent them from radiating into space.
greenhouse effect
food stuffs to obtain energy is called
cellular respiration
the surface of the nucleus is bounded by a special kind of membrane called the
nuclear envelope
_________ form when the two membrance layers of the nuclear envelope pinch together. A nuclear pore is into an empty opeing like the hole in a doughnut; rather it has many proteins embedded within it
nuclear pores
an organism that can harvest light energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic compounds to make organic molecules
an oranism that does nto have the ability to produce its own food