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30 Cards in this Set

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How does the replication of DNA take place?
5-prime, 3-prime direction (continuous)
What binds pieces together with the discontinuous pieces (other stand)?
DNA-ligase
What is the basic pattern of protein synthesis?
DNA replication to transcription to RNA to translation
What moves along the DNA assembling mRNA?
RNA-polymerase
What are start and stop sequences?
determines when to start/stop, usually followed by promotor region
What happens to mRNA molecules in protein synthesis in prokaryotes?
they're used directly in protein synthesis
What happens to mRNA molecules in eukaryotes?
go through "editing" process, using spliceosomes where some segments are cut out=introns or reassmbled into mRNA which leaves the nucleus=exons
What is involved in translation?
mRNA(blueprint for how the assembly of amino acids), ribosomes, transfer RNA(w/amino acids), Energy (ATP&GTP), enzymes
What are ribosomes made of?
ribosomal RNA and proteins, they're catalysts for protein synthesis, functional positions called the P and A sites
What are codons?
small subunit attches to mRNA, a 3 letter sequence of nucleotides
What occupies the P site?
initiator tRNA (with methionine), (AUG codon)
What is in the A site?
large subunit attaches and A site is filled with coded tRNA-amino acids complex
What is formed between two amino acids?
peptide bonds
what happens when the stop codon is reached?
protein chain is released from ribosome complex
what is assembly of protein called?
elongation
why is a 3-letter code used?
four nucleotides taken 3 at a time will code for 64 amino acids
How does the genetic code begin?
sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule
What happens to the DNA code first?
it is TRANSCRIBED to mRNA
What happens after the DNA has been transcribed to mRNA?
the ribosome and tRNA assemble proteins of specific sequence by matching codons and anticodons
What does the amino acid sequence determine?
the shape of the molecule and thus its function
What is an example and what does a retrovirus do?
AIDS, reverse the normal flow of DNA to mRNA to protein (does opposite)
What enzyme does retroviruses use?
reverse transcriptase
What is antiobody diversity?
editing possible at the DNA level as well as at the mRNA level
what does a gene do?
sections of DNA that code for amino acids?
What is they system called that name organisms and who first put it together?
binomial system, Linnaeus in 1700's in 2 books "Species Plantatum" and "Systema Nature"
How does the sporophyte generation produce spores? what about gametophyte?
meiosis, mitosis
What group of organisms occumpy extreme conditions? name them
Archaea, methane-productin, halophiles, thermophiles
What are the kingdoms of eukaryotes?
Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Protista
What is some general info about Protists?
"catch all" group, all life cycles, wide diversity: algae, protozoa, slime molds, water molds
info about fungi kingdom?
haploid life cycle, nutrition by absorption, no motile cells except chytrids, chitin cell wall