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### 110 Cards in this Set

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 What is science? body of knowledge What is biology? study of life and living things What is outcome 1? Fundamental science skills? What is the scientific method used for? solving problems Name all 6 steps of the scientific method? 1. Define Problem 2. Gather relevant research (important because you need it to make an "educated" guess 3. Formulating hypothesis ^^ why you need the research 4. Test the hypothesis (experiment/lab) 5. Recording Observations 6. Drawing Conclusions What is a hypothesis? a testable statement about the world used to make more explanations What is a theory? a well substantiated explanation of some aspect of nat. world incorporates: facts laws inferences tested hypothesis what is a law? a descriptive generalization about how some part of nat. world behaves under stated circumstances. Few laws-- more theory What is a Fact? an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed What are conclusions made from? outcome of experiment--not hypothesis If the outcome of the experiment supports the hypothesis...? the hypothesis has been varified If the outcome of the experiment does not support the hypothesis...? the hypothesis has been disproved If the hypothesis is varified you 1.? 2? and why? retest and record because it may lead to a law or theory If the hypothesis is disproved? (2things) 1. check to make sure the result is not due to an experimental error 2. form a new hypothesis based on the conclusion try again Why metric system? most commonly known, based on units of 10 so easy Distance is measured in? meters (m) Mass is measured in? grams (g) Volume is measured in? Liters (L) Temperature is measured in? Celsius (C) or Kelvin (K) volume of liquid is measured in a ? graduated cylinder when its poured into a cylinder a ____ is formed meniscus where do u read from the meniscus? the bottom 1cm^3=? 1 mL Mass of an object can be found by 2 things? 1. triple beam balance 2. digital scale On a celsius scale the freezing point of water is? 0 degrees On a celsius scale the boiling point of water is? 100 degrees On a celsius scale the normal human body is ? 37 degrees degress F= 1.8C+32 degrees C= (degreesF-32)/1.8 Data table- used to record numerical data Bar graphs show? comparisons line graphs show? relationships Independent variable the one you knew or changed ex: time dependent variable- the one which depends on the experiment What is outcome two? Biological Classification What is taxonomy? the science of classification 3 reasons for classification? common language structural similarities ancesteral similarities What are the 7 levels of classification going from most general to most specific? 1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species What is a species? organisms similar in structure mate under natural conditions to proude fertile offspring Who created the Linnean Classification system? Linnaeus How did Linnaeus use his system to classify organisms? used structural similarites to group species into larger and more general catagories what are homologies? structural similarities What is the naming system used? Binomial Nomnclature what does Binomial Nomnclature mean? two-name naming system in the Binomial Nomnclature what is the first name and what do you do with it? first name is the genus name Capitalize, and either underlined or italicized what is the second name in the Binomial Nomnclature and what do you do with it? second name is the specific epithet do not capitalize, underline or italicize What are the two types of cells making up organisms? Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic What is prokaryotic? simple, primitive What is eukaryotic? complex, and advanced (true core, nucleus) Organisms are either m____ or u____- multi cellular or unicellular organisms can produce either? sexually (with sperm) or asexually (doesnt require specialized cells) Two types of nutrition for organisms are 1. Autotrophic- makes own food (ex: plants and bacteria) 2. Hetrotrophic-feeds off other organisms (ex: humans) Organisms have two types of metabolism Aerobic- uses oxygen or Anaerobic- doesnt use oxygen Organisms structural similarites (3) 1. Homologous- based on DNA- similar anatomically but different in purpose 2. Analogous- show no common ancestry but are similar in structure 3. Vestigial- serve no purpose, have been passed on from ancestor that must have used them Organisms have evolutionary relationships (3) Embryology genetics fossil record What is the first kingdom? Monera What type of cells are used in monera? prokaryotic what are the two sub-catagories in monera? Archaea Eubacteria What is the 2nd kingdom? Protista what type of cells does Protista carry? Eukaryotic examples of protista mostly aquatic "LEFTOVER KINGDOM" everything else that does not have a place ex: algae, amoebas What is the 3rd kingdom? Fungi What types of cells does Fungi carry, and what does this mean? eukaryotic, means multicellular with cell walls Give 3 charateristics and one example of Fungi hetrotrophic (feed off other organisms) decomposers (sometimes parasites) non-motile ex:mushrooms, yeasts,molds What is the 4th kingdom? Plantae what types of cells does Plantae carry? eukaryotic give 3 characteristics of plantae and a few examples multicellular with cellulose cell wall photoautotrohpic (makes food from sun) sexual or asexual ex: mosses, ferns What is the 5th Kingdom? Animalia What types of cells does Animalia carry? eukaryoitc (multicellular) give two characteristics of animalia and a few examples hetrotrophic (feeds off of other organisms) typically motile sexual ex: worms, insects, birds, reptiles, humans Differences among members of a species is called? variation Classification involves making branched diagrams of evolutionary history called? cladistics What are the 3 ways that stay separate? 1. dont meet 2. meet and breed unfertile offspring 3. meet but dont breed What is outcome 3? human classification What kingdom do humans belong to? Animalia What phylum do humans belong to? Chordata What class do humans belong to? Mammalia what order to humans belong to? primates What family do humans belong to? hominidae what genus do humans belong to? homo what species are humans? homo sapiens ____, _____,and ____ belong to an _____ of _____ called _____ humans, monkeys, and apes, order of mammals called primates 4 characteristics of primates eyes face forward complex brains an opposable thumb flexible shoulders and rotating forelimbs homologous evidence supporting humans as primates thumbs, forelimbs, brain and eyes molecular evidence supporting humans as primates nucleotide sequences in DNA of humans show similarity with gorillas and chimps Fossil evidence supporting humans as primates evolved from the african apes Metabolism all of the chemical reactions occuring within the cells of an organism Respiration chemcial process by which an organism obtains energy from food materials in order to maintain life functions Nutrition all activities that an organism does to get materials from the environment and prepare them for use 2 reasons for nutrition all living things need energy all living things need raw materials for growth and repair what are the 3 steps of nutrition ingestion digestion egestion What is ingestion? taking in materials from the environment What is digestion breaking down materials to prepare for use Egestion passing of waste which cannot be digested and used (solid waste) What is excretion? removal of waste products that the organism itself has made (not elimination of feces) ex: sweat, pee, mucus, blowing nose Transport absorption and distribution of materials within an organism (circulation of materials) ex: circulatory system internal movement Synthesis the process by which an organism builds large molecules from smaller ones ex: drugs, poisons, waxes Growth using the products of synthesis to increase the cell size or number (due to increase in number of cells) Reproduction the production of new individuals (**this must occur for a species to survive, however an individual organism does not need to reproduce in order to survive) Regulation the coordination and control of the activities of an organism and the responses to its environment or the response to stimuli (adrenaline reaction) Homeostasis the condition of a constant internal environment ex: body temp remains relativly constant in warm-blooded animals ex: the amount of gluclose in blood needs to be within a certain range possible and true explanations of complex probelms are called? theories possible and true explanations of complex probelms are called? theories a duplicate experiment which is exactly the same with no variables is called a? control observations or numerical records taken during an experiment is called? data sceintific facts which can be backed by proof are called? laws the science of classification is called? taxonomy a simple or primitive cell is called? prokaryotic a remnant structure not used by an organism vestigial an experimental variable controlled by the scientist is called? independent variable