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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is science?
body of knowledge
What is biology?
study of life and living things
What is outcome 1?
Fundamental science skills?
What is the scientific method used for?
solving problems
Name all 6 steps of the scientific method?
1. Define Problem
2. Gather relevant research (important because you need it to make an "educated" guess
3. Formulating hypothesis ^^ why you need the research
4. Test the hypothesis (experiment/lab)
5. Recording Observations
6. Drawing Conclusions
What is a hypothesis?
a testable statement about the world used to make more explanations
What is a theory?
a well substantiated explanation of some aspect of nat. world
incorporates:
facts
laws
inferences
tested hypothesis
what is a law?
a descriptive generalization about how some part of nat. world behaves under stated circumstances. Few laws-- more theory
What is a Fact?
an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed
What are conclusions made from?
outcome of experiment--not hypothesis
If the outcome of the experiment supports the hypothesis...?
the hypothesis has been varified
If the outcome of the experiment does not support the hypothesis...?
the hypothesis has been disproved
If the hypothesis is varified you
1.?
2?
and why?
retest
and record
because it may lead to a law or theory
If the hypothesis is disproved?
(2things)
1. check to make sure the result is not due to an experimental error
2. form a new hypothesis based on the conclusion try again
Why metric system?
most commonly known, based on units of 10 so easy
Distance is measured in?
meters (m)
Mass is measured in?
grams (g)
Volume is measured in?
Liters (L)
Temperature is measured in?
Celsius (C) or Kelvin (K)
volume of liquid is measured in a ?
graduated cylinder
when its poured into a cylinder a ____ is formed
meniscus
where do u read from the meniscus?
the bottom
1cm^3=?
1 mL
Mass of an object can be found by 2 things?
1. triple beam balance
2. digital scale
On a celsius scale the freezing point of water is?
0 degrees
On a celsius scale the boiling point of water is?
100 degrees
On a celsius scale the normal human body is ?
37 degrees
degress F=
1.8C+32
degrees C=
(degreesF-32)/1.8
Data table-
used to record numerical data
Bar graphs show?
comparisons
line graphs show?
relationships
Independent variable
the one you knew or changed ex: time
dependent variable-
the one which depends on the experiment
What is outcome two?
Biological Classification
What is taxonomy?
the science of classification
3 reasons for classification?
common language
structural similarities
ancesteral similarities
What are the 7 levels of classification going from most general to most specific?
1. Kingdom
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus
7. Species
What is a species?
organisms similar in structure mate under natural conditions to proude fertile offspring
Who created the Linnean Classification system?
Linnaeus
How did Linnaeus use his system to classify organisms?
used structural similarites to group species into larger and more general catagories
what are homologies?
structural similarities
What is the naming system used?
Binomial Nomnclature
what does Binomial Nomnclature mean?
two-name naming system
in the Binomial Nomnclature what is the first name and what do you do with it?
first name is the genus name
Capitalize, and either underlined or italicized
what is the second name in the Binomial Nomnclature and what do you do with it?
second name is the specific epithet
do not capitalize, underline or italicize
What are the two types of cells making up organisms?
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
What is prokaryotic?
simple, primitive
What is eukaryotic?
complex, and advanced (true core, nucleus)
Organisms are either m____ or u____-
multi cellular or unicellular
organisms can produce either?
sexually (with sperm)
or asexually (doesnt require specialized cells)
Two types of nutrition for organisms are
1. Autotrophic- makes own food (ex: plants and bacteria)
2. Hetrotrophic-feeds off other organisms (ex: humans)
Organisms have two types of metabolism
Aerobic- uses oxygen
or
Anaerobic- doesnt use oxygen
Organisms structural similarites (3)
1. Homologous- based on DNA- similar anatomically but different in purpose
2. Analogous- show no common ancestry but are similar in structure
3. Vestigial- serve no purpose, have been passed on from ancestor that must have used them
Organisms have evolutionary relationships (3)
Embryology
genetics
fossil record
What is the first kingdom?
Monera
What type of cells are used in monera?
prokaryotic
what are the two sub-catagories in monera?
Archaea
Eubacteria
What is the 2nd kingdom?
Protista
what type of cells does Protista carry?
Eukaryotic
examples of protista
mostly aquatic
"LEFTOVER KINGDOM"
everything else that does not have a place
ex: algae, amoebas
What is the 3rd kingdom?
Fungi
What types of cells does Fungi carry, and what does this mean?
eukaryotic, means multicellular with cell walls
Give 3 charateristics and one example of Fungi
hetrotrophic (feed off other organisms)
decomposers (sometimes parasites)
non-motile
ex:mushrooms, yeasts,molds
What is the 4th kingdom?
Plantae
what types of cells does Plantae carry?
eukaryotic
give 3 characteristics of plantae and a few examples
multicellular with cellulose cell wall
photoautotrohpic (makes food from sun)
sexual or asexual
ex: mosses, ferns
What is the 5th Kingdom?
Animalia
What types of cells does Animalia carry?
eukaryoitc (multicellular)
give two characteristics of animalia and a few examples
hetrotrophic (feeds off of other organisms)
typically motile
sexual
ex: worms, insects, birds, reptiles, humans
Differences among members of a species is called?
variation
Classification involves making branched diagrams of evolutionary history called?
cladistics
What are the 3 ways that stay separate?
1. dont meet
2. meet and breed unfertile offspring
3. meet but dont breed
What is outcome 3?
human classification
What kingdom do humans belong to?
Animalia
What phylum do humans belong to?
Chordata
What class do humans belong to?
Mammalia
what order to humans belong to?
primates
What family do humans belong to?
hominidae
what genus do humans belong to?
homo
what species are humans?
homo sapiens
____, _____,and ____ belong to an _____ of _____ called _____
humans, monkeys, and apes, order of mammals called primates
4 characteristics of primates
eyes face forward
complex brains
an opposable thumb
flexible shoulders and rotating forelimbs
homologous evidence supporting humans as primates
thumbs, forelimbs, brain and eyes
molecular evidence supporting humans as primates
nucleotide sequences in DNA of humans show similarity with gorillas and chimps
Fossil evidence supporting humans as primates
evolved from the african apes
Metabolism
all of the chemical reactions occuring within the cells of an organism
Respiration
chemcial process by which an organism obtains energy from food materials in order to maintain life functions
Nutrition
all activities that an organism does to get materials from the environment and prepare them for use
2 reasons for nutrition
all living things need energy
all living things need raw materials for growth and repair
what are the 3 steps of nutrition
ingestion
digestion
egestion
What is ingestion?
taking in materials from the environment
What is digestion
breaking down materials to prepare for use
Egestion
passing of waste which cannot be digested and used (solid waste)
What is excretion?
removal of waste products that the organism itself has made (not elimination of feces) ex: sweat, pee, mucus, blowing nose
Transport
absorption and distribution of materials within an organism (circulation of materials) ex: circulatory system internal movement
Synthesis
the process by which an organism builds large molecules from smaller ones
ex: drugs, poisons, waxes
Growth
using the products of synthesis to increase the cell size or number (due to increase in number of cells)
Reproduction
the production of new individuals (**this must occur for a species to survive, however an individual organism does not need to reproduce in order to survive)
Regulation
the coordination and control of the activities of an organism and the responses to its environment

or the response to stimuli (adrenaline reaction)
Homeostasis
the condition of a constant internal environment
ex: body temp remains relativly constant in warm-blooded animals
ex: the amount of gluclose in blood needs to be within a certain range
possible and true explanations of complex probelms are called?
theories
possible and true explanations of complex probelms are called?
theories
a duplicate experiment which is exactly the same with no variables is called a?
control
observations or numerical records taken during an experiment is called?
data
sceintific facts which can be backed by proof are called?
laws
the science of classification is called?
taxonomy
a simple or primitive cell is called?
prokaryotic
a remnant structure not used by an organism
vestigial
an experimental variable controlled by the scientist is called?
independent variable