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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydrogen Atom
Part of wather molecule, H+ ions influence pH
Carbon Atom
Backbone of organic materials
Sulfer Atom
Important in protein structure
Oxygen Atom
Part of water molecule. Required for cellular respiration to make ATP. Makes up 20% of air.
Nitrogen Atom
Backbone of amino acids. Exists in atmosphere as N2 gas- 79% of air. We cannot use N2 gas because we can't break the triple bond, so bacteria is needed to put it into usable form.
Phosphorous Atom
Bone component. Phosphate = Phosphorous + Oxygen.
Atoms with a variable number of neutrons. Used for dating fossils (Carbon -- radiometric dating) and diagnosing disease.
Atoms that carry a charge due to + or - electrons.
pH scale
Logarithmic scale to determine acidity of something. Influenced by H+ ions: More H+ ions= more acidic, lower pH.
Universal solvent; medium for chemical reactions. Only liquid that's less dense as a solid = ice floats.
-Hydrogen bonds: cohesive properties, holds heat

-Also uses covalent and ionic bonds
Carbohydrate (glucose) taken up by mitochondria to make ATP
2 monosaccharides; ex. sucrose (table sugar)
Many monosaccharides.

Starch, cellulose, glycogen.
Polysaccharide stored in plants (potatoes, corn)
Polysaccharide found in plant cell walls for structure. Not found in humans; we cannot digest it, but it provides good fiber in our diet.
Polysaccharide used for storage in animals, mainly in liver and skeletal muscle.
Lipids (fat)
Macromolecule used for long-term energy and insullation. They have more energy that carbs because they don't have any water.
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol: common in oils and butter.
Lipids found in cell membranes along with cholesterol to stabalize membranes. Not soluable in water.
Male - testosterone (in testes)
Female - estrogen and progesterone (in ovaries)
Most diverse macromolecule. Different types include enzymes (catalyze chem. reactions), antibodies (immune system), and contractile proteins (muscles).
Amino Acids
Make up proteins; 20 different kinds. Nitrogen = backbone.
Another name for a protein
Quaternary structure
The final form of a protein during synthesis
Nucleic Acids
Least abundant macromolecule in living things, but very important. Different kinds include DNA, RNA, and ATP.
Double-stranded nucleic acid found in nucleus. Genetic blueprint of life.
Single-stranded nucleic acid which leaves nucleus.
Direct copy of DNA
Makes ribosomes
Brings right amino acid into place during protein synthesis
Energy currency of all cells; the reason we eat is to make this.
Phospholipid bilayer
What a cell membrane is made of. Enables a "fluid layer membrane."
Membrane proteins
Allow larger molecules to travel into and out of the cell, provide structural support, recognition, communication and glycocalyx.
Contractile membrane protein which attaches to cytoskeleton, allowing the cell to move or moves things within the cell.
Blood of the cell
Tiny cells with no organelles; bacteria and archaea
Protists, plants, animals, fungi
Extensions of the plasma membrane ("false feet") which begin phagocytosis by surrounding large molecules and fusing their ends together, forming vesicles around the molecule
"Bringing into the cell" in the form of pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis.
"Cell eating" Form of endocytosis that takes bacteria into the cell.
"Cell drinking" Form of endocytosis that takes liquid into the cell.
Removing materials from a cell, such as waste or neurotransmitter (in order to move muscles)
Extensions of cell membranes to provide for more surface area, which do not move. Common in animal liver and small intestine cells.
Extensions of the cell that move external to it. Found in throat to move mucus out (but can be paralyzed by niccotine), in the uteran or follopian tubes to move egg to uterus, and in the brain to circulate cereberial spinal fluid
Organelle that propels a cell. In humans, only found in sperm cells.
Membrane bound sacks.
Brain of the cell
Nucleic pores
Allows RNA to leave nucleus
Specific for making rRNA and ribosomes
Involved in protein synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Involved in protein synthesis; modifies protein by twisting it and adding iron.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Involved in lipid synthesis (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) and stores calcium. Detoxifies certain substances = a lot in the liver.
Golgi apparatus
Packages and transports proteins. Binds completed protein with vesicle to send it within or out of the cell.
Secretory vesicle
Vesicle near membrane to expel waste.
Digests materials
Storage. Plants store water in central water vacuole.
Deal with free radicals.
Free radicals
Unpaired electrons which are made naturally, and make us age, sick, etc.
Takes in oxygen and glycose to make ATP and CO2. Have their own DNA and ribosomes separate from nucleus = Can produce on their own; have inner as well as outer membrane.
Organelle for structure and movement of cell.
Organelle involved in building cilia and animal cell division.
Organelle that contains cholorphyll; only in plants, performs photosynthesis.
Cell Wall
Only in plants and prokaryotes. Outside of cell membrane; made of cellulose.
Proteins found in membrane, mitochondria and lysosomes. Not used up in chemical reactions. 'Substrates' control state of breakdown.
Concepts of energy flow
-Energy does not cycle
-All energy comes from the sun: 99% used to heat planet; 1-2% captured by photosynthetic organisms
Kinetic energy
Active, mechanical energy
Potential energy
Waiting to be used; in chemical bonds
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Conservation of energy:
Energy neither made nor destroyed; flows from sun to plants; changes form from potential-kinetic.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
-Energy is needed to maintain structure=no energy transfer is 100% effective
-Every transformation increases entropy
A measure of disorder; always increasing in the universe
Uses of ATP
-Blood flow
-Pump calcium from low conc. to high
-Start photosynthesis, break down glucose
-Building cell parts
-Maintaining structure
Cellular respiration
-Harvests energy from food by transferring energy to ATP use in cell; organized by enzymes that control sequence reactions
-H+ ions concentrated on one side of membrane, slowly come through ATPase and make ATP
First part of cellular respiration (anaerobic process). Happens in cytoplasm
--> 2 pyruvic acid & 2 ATP
Krebs Cycle
Second part of cellular respiration (anaerobic process). Happens in mitochondria. Acetal CoA delivers acetic acid compound to Krebs Cycle.
--> CO2, NADH, 2 ATP
coenzyme that holds energy
Electron Transport Chain
Last step of cellular respiration (aerobic process). Happens in mitochondrial membrane.
NADH, FADH2 and O2 in; 36-38 ATP out.
->Chemiosmatic theory
Cyanide poison to cellular respiration
Stops protein from allowing hydrogen and oxygen to bind and make H2O
anaerobic respiration in which 2 ATP are made.
Products of fermentation (Humans and yeast)
Humans: Lactic acid
Yeast: Ehynol <- (toxic to us)
2 Areas of Chloroplasts
Tylakoids: light reactions
Stroma: dark reactions
3 different types of light
Transmitted, Absorbed, Reflected
Transmitted light
Goes all the way through an object or organism
Absorbed light
Used to make sugar
Reflected light
What you see (color)
Guard cells
Create stroma (pore in leaves) able to open and close =
-H2O goes in/out through stroma
-CO2 goes in/ O2 goes out
Water leaking out of stomata and is up to the top of the plant (capilary action)
(and their 3 components)
Light-harvesting units of thylakoid membrane which contains 100's of antenna molecules, a reaction center with a chlorophyll a molecule, and a primary electron acceptor.
Light Reactions
Converts light to sugar using NADPH.
Splitting water molecule makes oxygen --> can only be done by chloroplasts and lighting
Hydrogen builds up on one side of membrane, similar to respiration.
Dark Reactions
Carbon fixation makes carbohydrates, sugar=G3P.
CO2, ATP, NADPH in; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, ADP, NADP out.
The Two Photosystems
Absorb at different wavelengths, 1 produces NADPH, 1 splits water molecules
Summary of light reactions products
Carbon fixation
Adding hydrogens to carbon dioxide and forming carbohydrates.
Organisms that get energy from other sources (food) -- humans.
Organisms that make their own food -- Plants
Monera, Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protista
% spontaneous abortions
Main cause of spontaneous abortions
Chromosome abnormality
Sex cell reproduction
Regular body cell reproduction
The collection of all genes in an organism; haploid set
Genetic material- smallest to largest
Nucleotides (ATCG) - DNA molecule - chromosome - genome
Making cytoplasm, organelles, etc.
Where does mitosis happen?
In all stomatic cells except gametes.
Fastest cells: Red blood cells (2.5 mil./sec)
Second fastest: GI tract
2 areas where you're born with all the cells you get
Nerves and muscles.
Separation of cytoplasm
Purpose of mitosis
To get big; replace dying/damaged cells
Plant cell division (cell wall)
Vesicles form cell plate, which eventually forms cell wall
Binary fission (prokaryotes)
Asexual- clones. Membrane does all the work.
~30 min. regeneration time.
Evolutions through mutations
Asexual reproduction
No mate needed; really fast; clones of mother (ex. aphids)
Eggs & sperm (humans)
Pollen grain (plants)
copy of chromosomes. In humans - 92.
Reduction division
Used to get haploid cell= 1/2 chromosomes (sperm and egg cells)
Fertilization v. pollination
Fertilization: only can happen with 2 gametes of the same species
Pollination: can happen with 2 gametes of different species= often offspring are sterile & have hybrid vigor
Hybrid vigor
Mutts are often stronger and less likely to get sick than pure-breds.
Testes and ovaries; where gametes are made.
Where does meiosis occur?
What fungus, protists, and plants like moss and fungus make instead of gametes.
Homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes with the same function but different details. One from mom, one from dad. Line up during meiosis only.
Where do we get offspring variation?
Crossing over, Random alignment, Which sperm and egg come together.
Crossing over
Homologous chromosomes swap parts of themselves to create variety in offspring.
Random alignment
The way in which homologous chromosomes line up and mix creates 8.5 mil possible different variations.
Making of sperm
Making eggs
Polar bodies
Little packets of DNA made by female.
Significance of meiosis
To create variably fit offspring.
Problems with meiosis
When the genes in our cells that tell them when to stop dividing go bad, cancer is created and spreads.
Can be caused by viruses or irritation to tissue.
Malignant tumors
Tumors that spread (metastasis)
Having the wrong number of chromosomes in eggs and cells.
Having an extra chromosome in the egg.
Having one less chromosome in egg
Turner syndrome
Woman with XO chromosomes
Klinefelter syndrome
Male with XXY chromosomes