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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cell membrane
the lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of a cell
cell wall
the rigid structure that surrounds the cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most bacteria
cytoplasm
the region of a cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
flagellum
a hairlike structure made up of microtubules that function in locomotion
mitochondria
the organelle that is the sight of aerobic respiriation in eukaryotic cells
nuclear envelope
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
hypertonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell
passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of cell energy
vesicle
a membrane bound sac in a eukaryotic cell that contains materials involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, or transport within a cell
cytolysis
the bursting of a cell
chlorophyll
a class of light absorbing pigments used in photosynthesis
light reactions
the initial reactions in photosynthesis, including the absorbtion of light by photosystems I and II, the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and O2 , and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosis.
stroma
in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakiods in a chloroplast
alcoholic fermentation
the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol; the anaerobic action of yeast on sugars
lactic acid fermentation
the process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
Krebs cycle
a series of biochemical reactions that release carbon dioxide and result in the formation of ATP
centromere
a region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids are held together and which is the site of attachment of the chromosome to the spindle fibers during mitosis
anaphase
a phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
centriole
a structure that appears during mitosis in animal cells
interphase
a period of cell growth and development that preceeds eukaryotic cell nuclear division
prophase
the first stage of mitosis and meiosis, characterized by the condensation of chromosomes
nucleus
the organelle that contains most of the DNA and directs most of the cells activites
chloroplast
a plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
cytosol
the gelatinlike aqueous fluid that bathes the organelles on the inside of the cell membrane
golgi apparatus
a system of membranes in eukaryotic cells that modifies protiens for export by the cell
nucleolus
the structure in which ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled; found in most nuclei
nuclear pore
a small hole in the nuclear envelope through which substances pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
equilibrium
a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
hypotonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration is lower than that inside a cell
active transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient; requires the cell to expend energy
carrier protien
a protein that transports specific substances across a biological membrane
plasmolysis
the wilting or shrinking of a walled cell in a hypertonic environment
electron transport chain
molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane that uses some of the energy in the electrons to pump protons across the membrane
photosynthesis
the conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds
thylakoid
a flattened, membraneous sac inside a chloroplast; contains most of the components involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis
cellular respiration
the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
pyruvic acid
a three carbon molecule that is the end product of glycolysis
cristae
a fold of the inner membrane of a mitochondria
chromatid
one of two identical parts of a chromosome
cell cycle
the events of cell division; includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
cleavage furrow
the area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cells
metaphase
the second phase of mitosis; during which all the chromosomes move to the cells equator
telophase
the final stage of mitosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each new set of chromosomes
prokaryote
a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
chromosome
DNA and protien in a coiled, rod shaped form that occurs during cell division
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membraneous tubules and sacs in eukaryotic cells that functions as a path along which molecules move from one part of the cell to another
lysosome
an organelle containing digestive enzyme, existing primarily in animal cells
ribosome
an organelle that functions in the synthesis of protiens
facilitated diffusion
a process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier protiens
isotonic
describing a solution whose solute concentration equals that inside a cell
endocytosis
the process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances
turgor pressure
water pressure within a plant cell
histone
a protien molecule that DNA wraps around during chromosome formation
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm of one cell into two new cells.
mitosis
eukaryotic nuclear division
eukaryote
a cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
cilia
short, hairlike organelles that extend from a cell and functions in locomotion or in the movement of substances across a cell surface
microtubule
a hollow tube of protein that constitutes the largest strand in the cytoskeleton
vacuole
a fluid filled organelle that stores enzymes or metabolic wastes in a plant cell
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
exocytosis
a process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment
granum
a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
photosystem
in plants, a unit of several hundred clorophyll molecules and carotenoid pigment molecules in the thylakoid membrane
Calvin cycle
a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which CO2 is converted into carbohydrate
glycolysis
a pathway in which glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid
chemiosmosis
a process in chloroplasts an mitochondria in which the movement of protons down thier concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
mitochondrial matrix
the space inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion