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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is bioluminescence?
the phenomenon in witch chemical reactions within organism's (fireflies, fish, many other animals) abdomen release energy in the form of light.
water composes from ____ to ____ of any living system.
50, 90%
hydrogen and oxygen compose over ____ of living systems.
How are hydrogen and oxygen atoms related?
2 H and 1 O composes water molecule
does electrons move slower or faster around the oxygen side of a water molecule, and why?
slower, because the oxygen side has more force and the electrons want to be along that side of the water molecule.
what does the water molecule look like?
Mickey Mouse
What are the two types of mixtures?
solution and suspension
What is a mixture?
A material composes of two or more elements or compounds that are physically, not chemically mixed together
why is water so good at forming mixtures?
it's polarity
What is a solution?
a mixture of 2 or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed throughout (dissolved)
What is a solvent?
the substance that does the dissolving
What is a solute?
The substance that is dissolved
describe the characteristics of acids
-sour taste
-ph below 7
-hydrogen ions
-turns blue litmis paper red
describe the charac. of bases
-bitter taste
-ph above 7
-hydroxide ions
-turns red litmis paper blue
lemon juice pH?
oven cleaner pH?
2.5, 13.5
which solution has the highest concentration of H+ ions?
of OH- ions?
stomach acid, oven cleaner
Is Hydrogen fluoride pH below or above 7?
what the general pH of rainwater?
of acid rain(precipitation)?
6 to 7, 3.5
what is a suspension?
mixture of water and nondissolved material(it's suspended)
what properties of blood would classify it as a suspension?
-types of cells
-cell membranes

they're all suspended in blood plasma
How are mixtures, acids and bases, and suspensions found in living things all common?
They all contain water
The four elements that make up ____ of the total weight of the human body?
96.3%, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
difference between organic and inorganic compounds?
organic compounds MUST contain carbon.
organic compounds must contain ____ in each ____
carbon, molecule
how is carbon such a special and important compound in living things?
it's very versatile. has 4 outer valence electrons. can combine with many many other elements through covalent bonds, esp. with itself.
rocks may contain ____
carbon atoms, but it's inorganic because it's not living.
What does polymerization do?
combines many atoms to make a molecule
(great number of monomer are bonded together to make a polymer)
monomer means..?
one part
polyester is made by the process of polymerization. Why is this same process extremely important to living things?
monomers must pass through cell membranes because polymers are too large
the four major groups of organic compounds found in living things?
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
What the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms found in a molecule of carbohydrate and why is this important?
2:1. it's water!
what are glucose, galactose, fructose?
simple sugar.
what is simple sugar referred to as?
two monosaccharides joined together is a____.
3 or more is a ____.
diasaccharides, polysaccharides
what the process whereby simple sugars are polymerized?
and how does it work?
how many water molecules are needed to be taken out?
dehydration synthesis,
monosaccharides are joined together, and the ends are taken out either a OH- ion or a H+ ion, so that the ends of positive or negative. Each time two join together, a water molecule is taken out.
The number of monosaccharides minus 1 is the amount of water molecules taken out.
OH- + H+ -->
H2O (Water)
what are the three different types of polysaccharides and what are their functions?
-glycogen/"animal" - is stored in liver and large muscles. When the level of glucose is low, the glycogen breaks apart into glucose and replaces the lost ones, providing energy.

-plant starch - plants need it to store extra sugar as starch

-cellulose - produced by plants and it provides the tough and rigidity for the plants. it's a major component of both wood.
the splitting apart of polysaccharides to form monosaccharides is termed ____.
how does this relate to dehydration synthesis?
it's the EXACT opposite of dehydration synthesis
the artificial sweetner that is believed to cause cancer is called ____
lipids feel...
oily or waxy
list the 6 major roles in living organisms performed by lipids
-store energy
-important part of cell membranes
-waterproof coverings (cacti)
-insulation (polar bear)
-protection (kidneys)
-chemical messengers (steroids)
what are the most common forms of lipids and how dot hey differ?
fats, waxes (most of both are solid at room temperature)
oils (liquid at room temperature)
what's the difference between saturated, unsaturated, and polysaturated lipids?
saturated - fatty acids contains hydrogens and carbon-carbon single bonds (the hydrogen is joined off carbon atoms)

unsaturated-one double bond

polyunsaturated-more double bonds
eggs are often used in recipes as emulsifying agents to break up oil and fat molecules because..
so they can mix with other substances more easily
why are the two other lipids, sterols and phospholipids important?
phosphlipids-lipids that are added with phosphorus which make cell membranes
sterols-steroids uses as chemical messengers
proteins comes from the Greek work proteios which means...?
"of first importance"
proteins are organic compounds that contain ____ in addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
what does nitrogen do?
makes protein
proteins are polymers of ____
amino acids
there are more than ____ different types of amino acids
when two amino acids are combined, they form ____ aka. covalent bond between 2 amino acids
peptide bonds
proteins have numerous roles, name them
-regulate cell processes or to control the rate of reaction
-it's in cell membranes, transport substances in and out of cells or to help fight disease
-used to form bones and muscle, used for structural purposes
-enzymes(99% are proteins)
does enzymes take part in reactions? are they used up? if not, how do they come out?
no, no, in feces
too much ____ and ____ can be dangerous
protein and amino acid
what's a catalyst? what other names do we use to call it?
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. We use enzymes instead, which can speed up or down the rate.
how quickly can catalysts work to speed up reactions?
1 million times faster
why must we need enzymes in our stomachs?
to digest proteins, or else it'd take 50 years for a single meal.
the compounds that are affected by an enzyme as known as ____
the compounds affected by an enzyme are binded together at a region known as the ____
active site
what does it mean for an enzyme to be specific?
the substrates must fit like a key into the active site, the lock.
name the organic macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
carbohydrates- elements they are composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (2:1 ratio, lots of times)
carbohydrates- monomers connected through dehydration synthesis
monosaccharides (sugar)
examples of monosaccharides?
gluctose, galactose, fructose
carbohydrates- function(s)
-used as main source of energy
-structural purposes
lipids- elements they are composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (not in a 2:1 ratio)
lipids- monomers connected through dehydration synthesis
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
lipids- function(s)
-important parts of cell membranes
-store energy
-chemical messengers
-waterproof coverings
proteins- elements they are composed of
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
proteins- monomers connected through dehydration synthesis
amino acids
proteins- function(s)
-regulate cell processes and control the rate of reactions
-in cell membranes and transport substances into or out of cells, or to help fight disease
-enzymes (proteins)
-used for structural purposes (bones and muscles)
What are the five types of atoms in nucleic acids?
hydrogen, carbon, exygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous
nucleic acids are made from monomers called...
what are the 3 parts of nucleotides?
5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
the 2 main types of nucleic acids?
deoxyribonucleic acid (RNA)
ribonucleic acid (DNA)
what is the job of nucleic acids?
to store and transmit genetic information
will mistake in DNA always cause mutation?
no, not always