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72 Cards in this Set

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Gluconeogenesis
de novo synthesis of glucose from non carbohydrate precursors
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
Liver and kidney
What cannot be converted to glucose?
acetyl Co A
Overall reaction gluconeogenesis
2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 GTP +2NADH + 6 H20-->glucose + 4ADP+ 2 GDP + 6Pi + 2NAD+
What enzyme is used instead of hexokinase in gluconeogenesis?
G-6-pase
What enzyme is used in gluconeogenesis instead of PFK?
fructose 1,6 bisphosphotase
What enzyme is used in gluconeogenesis instead of pyruvate kinase?
Pyruvate carboxylase + PEP carboxykinase
Pyruvate Carboxylase
pyruvate + CO2 + H2O+ATP -->OAA+ADP+Pi+2H+
needs biotin
Is ATP required for carboxylation?
yes, some of the energy released by ATP hydrolysis is conserved in the new bond formed between the carboxyl group and pyruvate.
PEP carboxykinase
oxaloacetate + GTP --> phosphoenolpyruvate + GDP + CO2
What is the energy requirement for converting oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate?
Two high energy bonds (one from ATP in PEP carboxylase rxn and one from GTP in PEP carboxykinase) are required to get through last irreversible step in glycolysis
Fructose 1,6 bisphosphotase
Fructose 1,6 bisphosphate + H2O-->Fructose 6 P + Pi
Glucose 6 Phosphotase
Glucose 6 P + H2O-->Glucose + Pi
What enzymes catalyze irreversible reactions?
hexokinase, PFK ,and pyruvate kinase
Kinase
enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP
Isomerase
enzyme that converts one isomer into another
Aldolase
enzyme that catalyzes aldol condensation
Dehydrogenase
removes hydrogens by oxidation, usually require NAD+
Mutase
enzyme that changes one group into anothe group, moves phosphates
Enolase
converts C=C to alcohol
Input to glycolysis
glucose, 2 ATP, 4 ADP, 2 NAD+
Aerobic output glycolysis
2 NADH, pyruvate, 2 ADP, 4 ATP
Net energy gain of glycolysis
2 ATP, 2 NADH
First step of glycolysis
Hexokinase, converts glucose to G-6-P, traps glucose in the cell
Is first step of glycolysis reversible?
no, favorable, G<0
Third step of glycolysis
PFK
Name enzyme that catalyzes glycogen synthesis
glycogen synthase
Name enzyme that catalyzes glycogen degradation
glycogen phosphorylase
Phosphorolysis
cleavage of an ester by a phosphate group
Does phosphorylation lead to glycogen synthesis or degradation?
Phosphorylation activates glycogen phosphorylase leading to glycogen degradation, dephosphorylation activates glycogen synthase leading to synthesis
Energetic efficiency of glycolysis
50%
Where is pyruvate carboxylase located?
mitochondria
What is the role of Mg in 1st step of glycolysis
shields negative charge
2nd step of glycolysis
phosphoglucose isomerase, G-6-P is transfered to F-6-P
What kind of reaction is 2nd step of glycolysis
isomerization
What changes occur in 2nd step of glycolysis
rearrangement of C-O bond from 6 membered ring to 5 membered ring
PFK
3d step of glycolysis, fructose-6-P is converted into 1,6 fructobisphosphate
Step 4 of glycolysis
aldolase catalyzes cleavage of FBP into two 3 C molecules
what are the names of two 3 C molecules formed as a result of Step 4
3 GAP and DHAP
Pyranose
6 membered ring
furanose
5 membered ring
Anomeric carbon
chiral center gained upon cyclization
alpha anomer
OH group on C1 down
beta anomer
OH group on C1 up
example of pyranose
glucose, fructose
example of furanose
ribose
AMino sugars, example
modified monosacharides
glucosamine, sialic acid
Sucrose structure
Anomeric carbon of glucose forms a bridge with anomeric carbon of fructose
Lactose structure
glycosidic bond between galactose and glucose
Glycosidic bond
condensation of anomeric carbon with hydroxyl groups on another monosaccharide
which is the anomeric carbon in aldose
C1
which is anomeric carbon in ketose
C2
Name structural polysaccharides
chitin and cellulose
Cellulose
structural polysacharide of plants, polymer of beta 1->4 glucose, forms flat sheets with multiple H bonds between strands
cellulose properties
strong, stress resistant, water insoluble despite of hydrophilic residues
CHitin
contains N acetylglucosamine, part of insect exosceleton, not branched tightly packed
Name storage polysaccharides
Starch and glycogen
Starch
amylose and amylopectin
Amylose
linear glucose homopolymer, glucose 1->4, similar in structure to alpha helix in proteins
Amylopectin
branched, has alpha 1->6 branches
GLycogen
in animals only, more highly branched then starch
Glycoprotein
form of protein modification, play important role in directing location of the protein, define blood group antigen
Amino acid sequence in N linked glycans
Asn-x-Ser/Thr
Structure of chloroplast
3 membranes, thylakoid membrane folded to make lamellae, that are stacked to make grana, stroma - protein rich solution
what allows chlorophyl to absorb electrons
conjugated rings with Mg in the center
Name accessory pigments
carotenoids, phycocyanin
Photosystem I
uses energy of light to reduce NADP to NADPH
Photosystem II
uses light energy to oxidize H2O, reduce Q and make ATP
Cytochrome b6f complex
electron transfer from PS II to PS I
Reaction center in PS I
P700
Reaction center in PS II
P680
How is ATP generated in photosynthesis?
By establishment of proton gradient as electrons flow from PS II to PS I