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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
female and male
XX and XY (male)
Mendel's Laws
the Law of dominance
the Law of segregation
the Law of independent assortment
the law of dominance
dominent trait expressed
and recessive trait is hidden
the law of segregation
"during meiosis homologus chromosome seperate (anaphase I)"

two allele for each inherted trait(one from mom and one frm dad). located on seperate but homologus chromosome

during meiosis (anaphase) allele segregate thus gamate only carry one allele.
the law of independent assortment
each allel has equap probability(50% chance)

process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during gametogenesis to produce genetically unique gametes. Independent assortment occurs during meiosis I in eukaryotic organisms, specifically anaphase I of meiosis,[1] to produce a gamete with a mixture of the organism's maternal and paternal chromosomes.
T and P two trait are on seperate chromosome and not linked

TtPp X TtPp =9:3:3:1

as long as genes are on seperate chromosome and assorted independently during meiosis you will get 9:3:3:1 phenotype
3:1 phenotype rate
if two trait T and P is linked
upon self cross you will bet 3:1

TtPp X TtPp = 3:1 like monohybrid
autosomal recessive inheritance
autosomal means it affects both male and female

recessive is indicated by trait skip generations
autosomal dominant inheritance
dominant trait cannot skip generation because they are always expressed
x-linked or
sex linked recessive inheritance
x-linkedtraits generally affect more males than females

no male to male transmission since its X chromosome diesese.

ex. color blindness and hemophilia
Blood Type

-Anti-B antibody
-A antigen (on the blood cell)

B-anti A antibody
B antigen

-no antibody
-A and B antigen

-anti A and B antibody
-no antigen
Y shape

immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a specific target, which is called an antigen
non-mendalian inheritance pattern
incomplete dominance
-some progeny phenotypes are apparently blends of the parental phenotype

Hardy Heinberg condition

1. randome mating
2. no natural selection
3. no migration aor emigration
4. large population
5. No mutation
Hardy Weinberg equation
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
p + q = 1

p=frequency of dominant allele

q=frequency of recessive allele

p2=frequency of homozygous dominant individual within the general pop

2pq = frequency of heterozygous individuals within the population

q2=frequency of homozygous recessive individuals within a population
gene pool
sum total of all the alleles for any given trait
gene frequency
represents the presence of an allele for all members of a opoulation that have particular trait

혈우병, sex linked
혈액이 응고
test cross
aa X A()

but to find out A(a)both aa or Aa works
Genetic varience in bacteria
cause genetic varience in bacteria, which reproduce by binary fission (asexual)

foregin chromosome fragment(plasmid) is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination
cause genetic varience in bacteria, which reproduce by binary fission (asexual)

like sexual mating in bacteria
transfer of genetic material btw two bacteria that are temporarily joined
cause genetic varience in bacteria, which reproduce by binary fission (asexual)

occurs when fragments of the bacterial chromosome accidentally become packaged into viral progeny producd during viral infection then the baceal DNA from old host is introduced into new host and combination of bacterial DNA

involve bacteriophage
virus that infects its host bacterium by attaching to it, make a hole in the bacteria cell wall and inject its DNA
lytic cycle
the phage (virus) DNA takes control of the bacterium's genetic machinery.
bacterial cell then lyse and release new virions which infects other bacteria
lysogenic cycle
phage (virus) DNA integrated into the bacterial genome in harmless frm (provirus) and lying dormant for one or more generation.

Provirus can reemerge ad enter lytic cycle
how many genetically different gametes can be formed by mouse that is genotypically AABbCc (assume no linkage betwee these genes and that non are lethal)
use fornuma 2^n where n is number of heterozygous gene.

thus 2^2= 4