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34 Cards in this Set

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Fertilization
occurs when the sperm and egg come together in the oviduct(fallopian tube) to produce zygote
how hours following ovulation can egg be fertilized?
12-24hrs
cleavage
fertilized egg to 16 cell stage

increase in cell # w/o growth
(total volume is constant)

result in progressively smaller cells with an increasing ration of nuclear to cytoplasm

also increase surface to volume ratio thus improving gas, nutrient exchange

has vegitable pole and animal pole
-vegitable pole
--many york and cleavage speed is low

-animal pole
--less york, fast cleavage speed and cleavage
--many cleavage means small in size
fertilization steps
fertilization in oviduct
-->(32hrs) zygote (in oviduct)
-->(72hrs cleavage) Morula, solid ball of cells (in oviduct)
--> (blastulation) blastula
implantation and developmen occurs in uterus
--> (gastulation) gastula, 3 cell layers:triliaminar
-->(neurulation) neurula

zygote to neurula density of cell inc
Ectoderm
nervous system (brain and spinal cord)

epidermis

lens of eye

inner ears
endoderm
epithelial lining of digestive track

respiratory track

lungs

liver

pancreas
mesoderm
muscles, skeleton, circulatory system
gonads
kidneys
blood
heart
what occurs in ovary
ovulation occurs
what occurs in uterus
implantation and development of blastula
what occurs in oviduct (fallopian tube)
fertilization and zygote stay in oviduct until it becomes blastula
in humans and higher organism
blastopore becomes what?
anus
in lower organism blastopore becomes?
mouth
ferternal twins
when more than one egg is fertilized
identical twin
result of indetermiate clevage
placenta is responsible for?
food
oxygen
water
waste
FOWW
in fetus, which contains lowest partial pressure of oxygenated blood
Aorta

in adult Aorta has high O2 and low CO2
chloron
line inside the shell which surround amnion where placenta formation begin

gas exchange
amnion
enclose the amniotic fluid

protect embryo from shock
yolk sac
enclose yolk, blood vessel in yolk

transfer food to embryo
allantois
involve in respiration and excretion
contain blood vessel to transport O2,CO2, H2O and Nitro waste
placenta
receive oxygen and nutrients directly from its mother also remove CO2 and metabolic waste
umbilical cord
connected to placenta
Fetal Circulation
Blood is oxygenated in placenta.
deoxygenated blood in aorta

blood is shunt away from developing lung by foramen ovale, ductus venosus and ductus arterioles
Foramen ovale
connects the right arium to the left atrium in the fetal heart

purpose is to shunt blood away from the developing lungs
ductus arteriosus
connects pulmonary artery to the aorta

purpose is to shunt blood away from developing lungs
ductus venosus
connects fetal portal circulation to the placenta

shunt blood away from developing lungs
fetal resppiration
is facilitated by the placenta and is made possible bythe fact the
fetal hemoglobin have higher affinity for O2 then maternal hemoglobin
Birth 1/3 stage
cervix thin out and dilates
amniotic sac ruptures
releasing amniotic fluid
mild contraction
Birth 2/3 stage
rapid contraction
birth of the bady
cutting umblical cord
Birth 3/3 stage
uterus contracts
explling placenta and umlibical cord
which of the developmental stage has the greatest nuclear to cytoplasmic material ratio?
blastula
when does the embryo first dfferentiate into germ layer
gasturla
what is determinate cleavage?
determinate cleavage results in cells whose differentiation pathway are cearly defined, these cell are incapable of individually developing into complete organism
ectopic pregnancy
the embryo implants outside the uterus (ex. in fallopian tube)

in a normal pregnancy the blastula implants in the uterus