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18 Cards in this Set

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comparative anatomy
homologus structure

analogus structures
homologus structure
similar underlying anatomy, different fuction

common evolutionary origin

ex wings of bat, flipper of whale
analogus structures
similar functions
different evolutionary origins

differnt patterns of development

ex. wings of fly and wings of birds
comparative embryology
stage of embryonic development resemble the stages of the particular organism's evol. history
comparative biochemistry
universal genetic code
vestigial structures
appears to be useless in the context of a particular modern day organism's behavior and environment but were apparently useful at tone time
Biogerography
geographic barrier that cause individual in a population to evolve specific pattern
theory of evolution
lamarkican and darwin
lamrkican evolution
prinicple of use and disuse
(dissuse disappear)

inheritance of acquried characteristics
type of evolution
convergent evolution(like developing analogus structure)
divergent evolution (due to genetic draft/founder's effect)
directional evolution (phenotype shift towards extreme due to ecological condition)
genetic draft
cange in gene pool due to chance unlikely to adaptive

smaller the pop. greater effect of small change in allele frequency or of mutation on the gene pool of the next geneation
founder effet
small subset of pop become genetically isoled from the orgnal population

the smaller the sample size, the genetic composition of that region is less likely to represent the genetic composition of the larger population is derived from.

this type of genetic draft in an isolated group is known as founder's effect


isolated"founder" pop can diverge quite rapidly from original one
convergent evol
indepedent development of similar strucutre in different animal due to similar ecological role, selection pressure similartieis are analogus
divergent evol.
emergent of different species fra single ancestral species due to differing ecological roles and selecting pressure

often to the effet of minimizing competition by creating different species each speicialized to its particular niche
darwin's theory of evolution
1. individuals of any population very from one another in many characteristic due to mutation

2. gnetic variations can be inherited

3. members of population produce more offspring than the environment can support (cause competition)

4. those individual whose inherited characteristics fit them best to their evironment ar likely to leave more offspringthan less fit individual (natural selection)

5. over many gen. of natual selection, favorable change (adaptation) are perpetuated in the species. accumulation of these favorable change eventually results in speciation
directional evolution
the pheotypic norm of particular species shifts tward an extreme to adapt to selective pressure such as an increasingly colder environment
darwin believed the driving force behind evolution was ??
the fitness of the organism for its particular enviornment
convergent evolution due to homology?
no due to anology