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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
summary of photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O + light

---> C6H12O6

example of catabolism
energy from light
carry out by photo autotroph

takes place in chloroplasts, which are found in the mesophyll

Cholroplast -> Stroma -> grana -> thylakoid membrane

two step
dark and light
Light RxN
in Granna
makes ATP and NADPH in thylokoid membrane

-only photosystem I

-both Photosystem I and II
-both NADPH and ATP formed

ATP through photophosphorlation

NADPH and O2 through Photolysis
Dark RxN
(calvin Cycle)
in stroma

CO2 is fixed

light is not required to power the dark cycle
steps in cellular respiration
Citric Acid Cycle
substrate level phosphorylation


occurs in cytoplasm

1 glucose (6C)
--> 2 Pyruvate (3C)

4ATP -2ATP (used initially) = 2ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)

2NADH = 4 ATP (Oxidative)
1NADH in glycolysis results in 2ATP in ETC bc 1 ATP per NADH is used up when crossing into Mito

If Air is not available after glycolysis Fermentaton occur

Pyruvate (3C) + NADH
--> ethonal(2C)in yeast + CO2
lactic acid (3C)mussle cell
substrate level phosphorylation
1 glucose= 4 ATP from sub level phos (2 from glycolysis and 2 from TCA)

results in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the direct transfer of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a reactive intermediate.

In cells, it occurs in the cytoplasm (in glycolysis) and the mitochondrial matrix or cytoplasm (in the citric acid cycle) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Pyruvate Decarboxylation

oxidative phosphorylation

mitochondria matrix

2 Pyruvate (3c)
--> 2 acetyl coa (2C)
2CO2 + 2 NADH
oxidative Phosphorylation
1 glucose
-2 NADH (glycolysis)
-2 NADH (pyruvate decarboxylation)

=32 ATP

During oxidative phosphorylation electrons are transferred from NADH or FADH2 — created in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the Krebs cycle — to molecular oxygen. In eukaryotes this is carried out by a series of protein complexes located in the inner mitochondrial membrane called the electron transport chain. Protons
Citric Acid Cycle
Kreb Cycle

oxidative phosphorylation

occurs in mito matrix

2 Acytyl Coa (2C)
--> 4 CO2, 6NADH, 2FADH
Electron Transport Channel

oxidative phosphorylation

occurs in inner mito membrane

---> 34ATP

total ATP produced per glucose in euk and pro
euk 36

pro 38 because they don't have any mito membrane to cross so save 2 ATP(2NADH from glycolysis is worth 4ATP)
What is the final electron acceptor in ETC?
Anerobic respiration
how many ATP?
2 ATP per glucose
fatty acids enter the degradative pathway in form of
acetyl coA
fermentation only produece () ATP
in ETC O2 is () and () is formed
final e- acceptor

and H2O is formed
How do ATP store energy
as high energy bond created by covalent bond of 3 phosphate to adenosine

hydrolysis of ATP to ADP release inorganic phosphate and 7 kcal of energy
how do NADH and FADH2 store energy
they are reducing agents that carry chemical energy in the form of high potential electrons, which can be trnsfered as hydride ion
alternate energy source
carbohydrate 4 cal/gram
fat 9cal/gram
protein 4 cal/gram
carbohydrate as alternate energy source
disaccharides (glycogen) are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides and converted into glucose of glycolytic intetmediates
fats as alternate energy source
fat stored in adipose tissue as triglyceride and when need, they are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acid and glycerol
glycerrol coverted to PGAL and to Aceytal COA and enters TCA cycle
protein as alternate energy source
degrade protein only when carbohydrate and fat is not available. 4 cal/gram
undergo transamination rxn which they lose amino group to form alpha-keto acid and coverted into acetyl coa, pyruvate, one of the intermedite in TCA
site of photosynthsis
mesophyll has cholorplast and stomata

stomata let Co2 in and O2 out and regulated by guard cell

choroplast has stroma and granna
light rxn happens in granna and dark rxn happens in stroma

thylakoid membrane sacs are organized into stacks call grana
during the day the envirnment of guard cell is
hypotonic related to the guard cell cytoplasm
3 adapations of leave for reduction of water loss
leave have waxy cuticle which blocks transpiration

stomata (opening to the enviorn) only presented in the bottom

guard cells surrounding each of the stomata coordinate their opening and closing
six turns of the calvin cycle will produce
12 PGA from 6Co2
six turns of the calvin cycle will produce
12 PGA from 6Co2
what is cAMP
it is second messenger triggered after a receptor binds a ligand.

ligand such as hormones and neurotransmitter) will bind their membrane receptor, activating it.

thru G protein intermediate, the enzyme adenylate cyclasewill be actvated, and will covert ATP into cAMP.

adenylate cylase is attached to the inner layer of the phospholiped bilayer, it is not located in the cytoplasm.

cAMP is responsible for carrying the cheical stimulus ito the cytoplasm and triggering response and so is called a 2ndary messenger
is a storage polysaccharide sometiems known as animal starch

in liver as high glucose concentration

plants do not produce glycogen they have starch

highly branched molecule
glycogen synthesis
break down of glycogen
how many ATP are produced from 2 molecules of glucose using oly substrate level phosphorlation
1 glucose :glycolysis=net 2 ATP, 2 kreb cycle= 2 GTP which is 2 ATP thus
one glucose produce 4 ATP by substrate lvel phosphorltion

thus 2 glucose produce 8 ATP by substrate phosphorlation