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29 Cards in this Set

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Hemoglobin
Made up of CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen)

Dominated by Alpa Helices

Hydrogen Bonds are needed to keep the alpha helices together
Heme Group
no composed of amino acids, instead they are composed of and Fe atom
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic amino acids in hemoglobin
Hydrophilic- on surface of hemoglobin

Hydrophobic- middle of the molecule
Antibody
made of two chains heavy and light
Number of immunoglobulin domains make up the light chains and the heavy chains
each have two domains
Immunoglobulin Structure
made up of beta sheets
Disulfide Bond
sulfur forms this bond from the amino acid side chain
Antibodies are...
glycoproteins- they have associated carbohydrate groups
Antigen binding sites on antibodies
- on the tips of the Y
- two identical antigen binding paratopes
How many sialic acids bind to a single hemagglutinin protein and what protein secondary structure predominates in the region where this binding takes place?
3 sialic acids bind to single hemagglutinin protein on a beta secondary structure of the hemagglutinin
Hydrogen bonds is formed between...
Arg side chains and sialic acid
Chi Square Test
X^2 = Sum of (obs-exp)^2 / exp

observed is what you found in the experiment

degrees of freedom is one less than the number of categories you had

Appropriate to use to compare data from one sample to a hypothesis about the example

ex. testing that hypothesis that 20 percent of people are left-handed or that the sex ration at birth is 50/50
T test
used to compare data for two different samples

ex. comparing heartbeat rates of two samples of mice that did and did not recieve a drug or lifespan of males versus female

If the test statistic t from your data is larger than the critical value of t in Table 2, then you reject your "no-difference" hypothesis and conclude that the two samples were significantly different. If your t is smaller than the critical t, you must accept the "no-difference" hypothesis and conclude that the two samples were not significantly different from each other.
Space between the atoms in DNA
very small
Codons
made of 3 nucleotides
Transduction
DNA is transferred form one prokaryotic cell to another as a consequence of rare formation of an aberrant phage viron in some or all of its normal DNA is replaced by bacterial DNA
Conjugation
genetic exchange occurs between cells in direct contact with one another by a process encoded by plasmid-borne genes
Transformation
DNA is released from cells into the surrounding medium and recipient cells incorporate it into themselves from solution
Thymus
home to lymphocytes and macrophages (white blood cell that engulfs other cells)
Spleen
blood filter
destroys aged or damaged blood cells
Lymph Node
lymph draining back to the bloodstream is filtered as it passes through the node
Bone Marrow
Hematopoiesis- process by which various blood cells types develop from precursor cells

site for removal of aged and defective erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Leukocyte
white blood cell

Neutrophil- fight bacterial/viral infection

Lymphocytes- made up of antibody secreting B cells and T helper and T Killer cells

Monocytes- Fight parasitic infection

Basophils- Important in allergic responses

STUDY PICTURES OF EACH CELL
Erythrocytes
red blood cells
Immunoflourescent (IMF)
involves the use of flourescently tagged antibodies to stain specific proteins that are then viewed on a flourescent microscope
Agglutination
with blood type testing this means that the specific antibody is binding to its antigen on your red blood cells and therefore cross-linking the red blood cells into clumps (recall that antibodies have two identical antigen binding sites)
PCR
mass replication of a sequence of DNA
Gram Positive Bacteria
Purple/ blue

thick peptidoglycan layer
Gram Negative Bacteria
Red/pink

thin peptidoglycan layer