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14 Cards in this Set

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Describe how the body protects each of the following: nose, a cut in skin
The upper layer of the skin is dead. Skin produces oil which encourages benign bacteria to compete with the bad. When something gets past the skin, inflammatory response (incrases blood flow to area, pushes out pathogens, WBC's (macrophages) are brought to fight infection, engulf pathogens and tears them up and put their markers on the outside. nose - mucus causes things that enter the nose to stick to it instead of traveling to the lungs
Where does lymph come from?
It is liquid from the blood that is squeezed out of the circulatroy system and into the area between muscles and skin. It is the liquid that has leaked out of the circulatory system. It regulates bacteria so you don't go into shock
How does lymph move around in the system?
it is a system of open ended tubes with no pump. brings fluids back to the heart. moves through valves
What is in a lymph node?
they are filters for the lymph to keep the bacteria out of the circulatory system. helps fight off infections by removing bacteria
What makes antibodies and how specific are they?
b-cells produce antibodies. they are very specific chemicals
How do antibodies work?
a y shaped chemical that sticks to markers. B-cells are called over to an infection/bacteria to see if their antibodies fit. Antibodies go through the bloodstream to the infection and coat the pathogen to keep them from reproducing
How do b-cells and t-cells find out about an infection and what do they do about it? (Do the b-cells personally go?)
Helper T-Cells: in the lymph node the macrophage shows the markers to helper t-cells which organize an immune response
B-Cells: called over by helper-t to see if antibodies it prodcues are a good fit, if so, produce more antibodies which go and fight the infection
Killer-T Cells: called over by helper-t, shown markers, and activated to go through blood stream and kill anything w/ that marker
Why it is a good idea to breat feed? Why don't the benefits last forever?
While the baby is breast feeding, the baby gets the antibodies made by the mother and is protected by the same diseases the mother is. But the antibodies eventually die
A woman had Hepatitis A as a child and her doctor said she wouldn't get it again. Why?
Active immunity - body produces memory b-cells in response to an infection (when producing antibodies). They are prepared for another infection of a similar disease.
What is an auto-immune disease? How is it different from an allergy?
When the immune system attacks your body (MS, rhuematoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes). An allergy is just when the body percieves a harmless substance and produces IgE (antibody that releases histamines)
How do antivenins work? Do you keep your immunity?
when you take snake poison, boil it, and inject it into a horse, allow horse to produce antibodies, take them out of horse and put them in a snake bit victim. Don't keep immunity because the cells that come from the horse don't last forever.
Explain how a vaccine works.
Put a dead/messed cell in with the right markers as the normal disease, and the body responds to it and produces memory b-cells which will fight it off next time
What is a macrophage's job? How does it communicate with other cells?
Macrophage is a type of WBC. They attack and engulf pathogens. Tear them up and put pathogen cell markers on the outside of macrophage. They show the markers to helper-t cells in the lymphnode and the helper-t cells springs into action.
How does your immune system know what cells are part of your body and which are foreign?
Cells are all marked with chemical markings to be identified