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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Energy is what?
The capacity to do work
What is Kinetic Energy?
The energy of motion
What is Potential Energy?
Energy due to location or arrangement
What happens to energy?
Most energy is converted or lost as heat or waste energy
What is chemical energy?
A special form of potential energy
JUST TO KNOW!
Making bonds takes energy and breaking bonds releases energy
What is ATP
ATP is the "energy currency" of the cell
Give an example of a nucleic acid
ATP
THe monomer of a nucleic acid is a nucleotide which has 3 parts, name them.
-A 5-C sugar
-A nitrogen base
-A phosphate group
JUST TO KNOW!
Every single cell goes through cellular respiration
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
When we break a phosphate group off of ATP it drives cellular work in one of 3 ways
(ALL 3)
-Mechanical Work
-Transport Work
-Chemical Work
What is an enzyme
An enzyme is a specialized protein that speeds up chemical reactions
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
By lowering the activation energy of a particular reaction
What is "Induced fit?"
An interaction between an enzyme and its substrate
What is cellular respiration
The harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
JUST TO KNOW!
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
JUST TO KNOW!
ALL LIVING ORGANISMS GO THROUGH CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Most cellular respiration is "aerobic." What does aerobic mean?
It requires oxygen
What does cellular respiration occur?
The cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells
What is the most common fuel molecule for cellular respiration?
Glucose
Cellular Respiration can produce up to ____ molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose
38
JUST TO KNOW
Cellular Respiration transfers hydrogen atoms from glucose to oxygen, which forms WATER
What happens in cellular respiration?
When hydrogen and its electrons change partners, water is formed and energy is released
Chemical Reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called what?
Oxidation Reduction or Redox Reactions
What is the loss of electrons called?
Oxidation
What is the acceptance of electrons called?
Reduction
What happens when hydrogen and oxygen react to produce water?
Energy is released as electrons "fall" into their new bonds within oxygen
What is the first stop in the Electron Transport Chains (ETC) as electrons move from glucose to oxygen?
THe electron acceptor NAD+
Each link in the ETC is a molecule. It's usually a _______.
Protein
What is NADH?
A high energy molecule
What are the three main stages during aerobic cellular respiration
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport
What is Glycolysis?
Beginning of ALL cellular respiration
What does Glycolysis occur
Cytoplasm
JUST TO KNOW
Glycolysis does NOT require oxygen. "Costs" 2 ATP to start up.
JUST TO KNOW
Because the reactions occur in a cycle there is no real "1st" or "last" molecule in the Krebs Cycle
JUST TO KNOW
The Krebs Cycle requires Oxygen
Where does the Kreb Cycle occur?
In the liquid inner portion of the Mitochondria
What waste product is produced in the Kreb cycle?
Carbon Dioxide
Many high energy molecules are produced during what stage
Krebs Cycle
Most ATP is made when?
During Electron Transport
JUST TO KNOW
Electron Transport requires oxygen
Where does Electron Transport occur?
In the inner membrane of the mitochondria known as the Cristae
JUST TO KNOW
The most ATP is produced during the Electron Transport as a result of the electrons falling
JUST TO KNOW
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and without it electron transport will back up and Kreb's cycle will grind to a halt. Only glycolysis will continue
All plants, certain protists, and some bacteria are _________.
photosynthesis autotrophs
In Eukaryotic Cells, photosynthesis occurs within the________.
Chloroplast
Chloroplasts have an inner compartment filled with a thick fluid called________.
Stroma
Within the stroma are disklike membrane sacs Thylakoids. The thylakoids are in stacks called_______.
grana
Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen enter and leave the plant by way of tiny pores called___________.
Stomata
Photosynthesis is divided into two stages of reactions called what?
Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle
JUST TO KNOW
plants have to bring in oxygen and out carbon dioxide because plants do cellular respiration
Light reactions convert solar energy to _________.
Chemical energy
We use light reactions to drive the synthesis of _______ & ________.
ATP & NADPH
Light reactions occur where?
In the thylakoid membranes of the grana
Sunlight is a type of energy called _________.
Radiation or Electromagnetic Energy
Absorbed light is an energy source, reflected light is what we call________.
color
WHere does the Calvin Cycle occur?
In the stroma of the chloroplast
Why must every cell perform cellular respiration?
To get ATP
ATP is known as the "energy currency" of the cell. Why doesn't the cell just use "food" for energy to do all its work?
Because it's too big and has to be broken down first
How do enzymes play a part in cellular respiration?
They speed up chemical reactions
In Eukaryotic Cells, where does cellular respiration occur?
Glycolysis: cytoplasm
Kreb's Cycle: liquid inner portion of the mitochondria
Electron Transport: inner membrane of the mitochondria known as the Cristae
What part does sugar play in aerobic cellular respiration?
The fuel molecule
Why is oxygen needed in aerobic cellular respiration?
Without it its electron transport will back up and Kreb's cycle will come to a halt
In aerobic cellular respiration, the waste product Carbon Dioxide comes from which stage?
Kreb's Cycle
In aerobic cellular respiration, the waste product Water comes from what stage?
Electron Transport
In aerobic cellular respiration, most of the ATP gets resynthesized in which stage?
Electron Transport
What are the products of two fermentation pathways of anaerobic respiration?
Alchol: Carbon Dioxide & Ethyl Alcohol
Lactic Acid: Lactic Acid
Why do most organisms prefer aerobic respiration over anaerobic respiration?
Because during aerobic respiration more ATP (energy) is made
Summarize the light reactions of photosynthesis
Light reactions convert solar energy into chemical energy
Summarize the Calvin Cycle
Makes sugar (glucose) from carbon dioxide
Why are plants green?
Because their main pigment chlorophyl reflects green light
Explain why leaves "turn colors" in the fall
Chlorophyl fades away leaving pigments that were there the whole time that have been masked my chlorophyl
_________ is the capacity to do work
Energy
___________ is a measure of the degree of disorder, randomness, or chaos
Entropy
What are the basic parts of the ATP nucleotide
5-Carbon Sugar : Ribose
Nitrogen Base : Adenine
3 phosphate groups
What is the "key" to ATP's energy stroing qualities
The bond between the phosphates
An enzyme _____________
Is usually a protein and it lowers the activation energy
Glycolysis starts and ends in the _____________
Cytoplasm
Aerboic Cellular Respiration is completed in the ____________.
Mitochondrion
Ultimately, what is the role of Oxygen in aerobic cellular respiration?
Final hydrogen or electron acceptor at the end of Electron Transport and makes water
The light reactions of photosynthesis in plants occur at the ___________.
Thylakoid membranes of the grana
The Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis in plants occur in the ___________.
Stroma