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72 Cards in this Set

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Diploid
2N, (46) amount in a human, come in 23 pairs.
Haploid
1N (23) amount in sperm and eggs.
mitosis
cell division primarily related for growth and repair.
Is for simple organisms, daughters are identical to parent cell. PMAT
Interphase
the longest stage, period between actual cell divisions
G1
growth stage before DNA replication
S
growth and DNA replication
G2
growth after DNA replication
Check points
internal control, make sure cell is ready for next stage
apoptosis
programed cell death
prophase
chromosomes become visible
metaphase
chromosomes line up at equater
anaphase
division of centromere, daughter chromomsomes migrate to poles, cytokinesis starts
telophase
rebuilds nuclear envelope, cytokinesis contines tell cell are separate.
meiosis
sexual reproduction, nuclear division where chromosome number is halved, 2N to 1n, 46 to 23, same stages as mitosis
homologous
they look the same and carry the same traits
meiosis 1
chromosome number halved.
prophase 1
crossing over occurs
metaphase 1
chromosomes aline at equator
anaphase 1
homologues separate
telphase 1
nuclear envelope reforms.
kinterkinesis
similar to interphase in mitosis
meiosis 11
chromotids separate to give daughter chromosomes, results in 4 daughter cells.
oogenesis
process of producing egg cells
spermatogenesis
makeing 4 viable sperm cells
Gregor Mendal
1860's autrian monk that did plant breeding experiments.
mendels law of segregation
a) each organism contains 2 factors for each trait
b) they segregate during gamete formation and only have one factor
monhybrid cross
one trait cross
bihybrid cross
two traits cross
mendals law of independant assortment
a) each pair of factors assort independantly of other pairs, all possible combinations can occur in gametes.
genotype
the actual alleles
phenotype
how the organism looks
homozygous
TT or tt
heterzygous
Tt
NF- neurofibromation
elphant man, large benign tumors
huntington diease
brain disorder, middle age, you die
incomplete dominace
one allele is not completly dominant over another. ie sickle cell trait. red x white= pink
codominance
shared dominance
polygenic inheritance
when a trait is controlled by many pairs of alleles
epistasis
recessive pair of alleles prevent expression of other alleles. ie albino
x-linked trait
more makes than females affected
polyploidy
more than 2 chromosomes, 3n 4n 5n
monosomy
1n, lethal in animals
trisomy
3n, will live but with sydrome
sydrome
distinctive set of physical and mental characteristics
turner sydrome
XO, monosomy. 1 in 10000 females
klinefelter sydrome
XXY, trisomy, 1 in 10000 males
poly x female
XXX, trisomy 1 in 1500 females
Jacobs sydrome
XYY in in 1000 males.
deletion
chromosome breaks off
duplication
repeated segment
inversion
180 turn around of chromosome
translocation
segment moves to another non-homologous chromosome
requirments of genetic material
-must be able to store info
-must be able to replicate
-must be able to undergo mutations.
semiconservative replication
daughter strand molecules pair with on strand of old molecules. consists of unwinding complementary base pairing. 1/100000 pairs are mismatched and when not fixed it is a mutation.
prokaryotic replication
single, circlular loop of dna. can go in both directions. rate of a million bases/min
eukaryotic replication
dna replicated at numerous orginins which spred in both directions. slower, 500-5000 bases per min.
mRNA
messenger rna, takes the message from dna in the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
rRNA
ribosomal rna, makes up ribosomes where protiens are synthesized,
tRNA
transfer rna, transfers the amino acids to the ribosomes, there is at least one trna fro each of the 20 amino acids.
transcription
is the process in which mRN
A copies DNA, then mRna moves to the cytoplasm of the cell where it directs the synthesis of proteins.
requirments of the genetic code
degenerate- most amino acids are specified by more than one codon, less liklihood of mutations.
unamgbiguous- each codon has only one meaning.
Has a "start" and "stop" signals or codons.
Chromatin structure
the close packing of the chromatin is a way to keep the genes turned off
transcriptional
governs which genes are transcribed(copied) and the rate of transcription
posttranscriptional
processes RNA to mRNA and controls when it leaves the nucleus
translational
involves the life expendency of mRNA, and its ability to bind to the ribosomes
posttranslational
additional changes to the gene product before it becomes functional
gene mutation
result of a change in nucleotide sequence
frameshift mutation
when the sequence is read starting at an incorrect base. the info is totally shifted over
point mutation
change of a single nucleotide and thus a single amino acid results and variable.
silent mutation
when the nucleotide codes for the same amino acid, and results in no notiable affect
nonsence mutation
when a codon for an amino acid is changed to a stop codon, which ends the protein, usually severe effect or is lethal
missence mutatuion
when one amino acid is substituted for another, may change properties or what is coded for.