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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is evolution?
change in species over time
when was the "period of exploration"
1500s
who is given credit for acquired characteristics?
lemarck
explain acquiring characteristics
the idea things are related/pass info
when was darwin's book first wrote and what was it called?
1859 (before cival war), On the Origins of species by means of natural selection
what are the five theories in darwin's ideas?
1-perpetual change: the world is always changing
2-common descent: all forms of life desended from common ancestor
3-multiplication of species: new species from splitting and transforming old ones
4-gradualism: big changes comes from little ones taking place over millions of years
5-natural selection: favorable traits survive, survival of the fittest
what is a branching evolutionary tree called?
phylogeny
what is neo-darwinism?
incorporating Gregor Mendel's chromosomal theory of inheritancee
what was Lemarck famous for?
first theory of evolution by means of acquired characteristics-1809 year of Darwin's birth
what is Charles Lyell known for?
uniformitarianism-laws of physics/chem stay the same and 2-geological events occured by natual processes like today
what president was born on the same day as darwin?
lincoln
what disease did darwin acquire from the kissing bug?
chargis
who is George Wallace?
independently thought of same evolution, wrote letter to darwin which spurred him to write Origin of Species
what are the observations and inferences of natural selection/
ob 1-organisms have great potential fertility
ob 2-pop stay constant
ob 3-natural resources are limited
inference 1-there is a contining struggle among members of pop. for survival
ob 4-pop. show variation
ob 5-some variation is hertiable
in 2-organisms show differential survival and reproduction favoring advantageous traits
in 3-adaptions occur over mill of years and thus new species over time
what is the hardy-weinberg equilibrium?
shows how things change over time, gene frequency
what is fitness in biology terms?
one who reproduces mot is most fit
how can genetic equilibrium be upset?
1-genetic drift: random loss of alleles, etc
2-nonrandom mating
3-migrations
4-natural selection
5-reacurring migration
what is a type of artifical selection?
domesticating animals
what is some examples of a species that has not changed?
dragonfly and crocodile
what is speciation?
the evolutionary process where a new species emerges
what is a species?
a group of organisms that reproduce only with ea other, share common ancestry, one gene pool
what is a sub-species?
denotes the area of a certain animal
ex=brown bear or grizzy bear
Linneaus
creating binomial species description
how should a Genus species name be written?
underline Homo sapien
what are some drastic mechanisms?
castrophies, hit by asteroid, climate change, adaptive radiation
what are some advantages to reproducing asexually?
don't need a mate, no energy required
what are the types of symmetary?
circular, radial, bilateral, sagittal plane: divides into right and left
explain the process through fertilization to development of embryo
2 cells (egg/sperm) come together, form zygote, starts dividing by clevage, reaches state of cells around hollow center=Blastula, cells moves in by Gastrulation forming Gastrula
What is the protostoma?
Deuterostomia
proto=1st mouth
deuterostomia=2nd mouth
what is diploblastic?
2 sets of layers of cells