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80 Cards in this Set

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The _____ cells are those body cells that contain 46 chromosomes.
SOMATIC
The ______ are the 22 pairs of chromosomes not associated with the X and the Y chromosomes.
AUTOSOMES
In Tay-Sachs disease, the individual is lacking an _______ that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain.
ENZYME
In the equation [possible combinations = 2^n] n stands for ______
HAPLOID NUMBER
During Meosis I chromosal _______ can occur, which futher adds to th level of gamete variation.
RECOMBINATION
Identical Twins
4 IN 1,000
MONOZYGOTIC
Fraternal Twins
12 IN 1,000
DIZYGOTIC
2 EGGS 2 SPERM
Define Haploid.
23(pair)
Define Diploid.
46(total #)
Define Zygote.
COMBINATION OF MATERNAL AND PATERNAL

FERTILIZATION BEFORE EMBRYO
Define gene.
TRAITS FROM MOM AND DAD
DNA BLUEPRINTS
Define Tay Sachs Disease.
METABOLIC DISORDER
LACKS ENZYME REQUIRED TO METABOLIZE FATTY COMPOUND IN BRAIN

DIE BEFORE 4 YEARS OLD

DESTROYS BRAIN CELLS
Define Cystic Fibrosis.
AFFECTS LUNGS AND OTHER TISSUE
DIE BEFORE 30 YRS OLD
1 IN 31 ARE CARRIER OF GENE
1 IN 4,000 GET IT
Difference between autosomes sex chromosomes.
1-22 CHROMOSOMES AUTOSOMES AND 23RD IS SEX CHROMOSOMES
Difference between gametes and somatic cells.
GAMETES ARE SEX CELLS SOMATIC CELLS ARE EVERYTHING ELSE
Compare and contrast the types of reproduction: Mitosis and Meoisis.
MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF SOMATIC CELLS. ALL 46 CHROMOSOMES ARE REPLICATED AND EACH DAUGHTER CELL RECIEVES COMPLETE SET.

MEOSIS: 46 CHROMOSOMES ARE COPIED AND THEN DIVIDE TWICE. PRODUCES DAUGHTER CELLS WITH HALF THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES, 23.
What's the alternative form of a gene?
ALLELES
ONE FROM EACH PARENT FOR A GIVEN TRAIT
Explain what a mutation is and how it occurs.
CHANGES IN DNA. CAN BE PASSED TO THE OFFSPRING WHEN IT OCCURS IN GAMETES OR SEX CELLS.
(short answer) Explain what type of cell your skin cell is. How does it divide and how many chromosomes are present in the nucleus?
SKIN IS A SOMATIC CELL
INCLUDES ALL CELLS IN BPDY EXCEPT SEX CELLS OR GAMETES.
CONTAIN 46 CHOROMOSOMES.
CELL DIVISON WOULD BE THROUGH MITOSIS.
Why is it important (evolution) that there is recombination of the genes in meiosis?
PROVIDE GENETIC DIVERSITY FOUND WITHIN A SPECIES. NEED GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR SURVIVAL OF SPECIES.
What's the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?
ASEXUAL: DONT NEED A PARTNER. BOTH GENDERS CAN REPRODUCE.

SEXUAL: MUST FIND A MATE
Why do organims engage in sexual reproduction even though it's not necessary to create new organisms?
THEY ENGAGE TO ENSURE VARIATION WITHIN THE SPECIES SINCE ASEXXUAL REPRODUCTION DOES NOT.
How does sexual reproduction generate individual variation or uniqueness?
GENERATES INDIVIDUAL VARIATION BY PRODUCING GAMETES DURING MEOISIS.
What's recombination?
THE RESULT OF THE TWO SETS OF CHORMOSOMES THAT COME TOGETHER DURING FERTILIZATION.
The Spanish Flu killed over _____ people.
50 MILLION
Compare and contrast the types of reproduction: Mitosis and Meoisis.
MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF SOMATIC CELLS. ALL 46 CHROMOSOMES ARE REPLICATED AND EACH DAUGHTER CELL RECIEVES COMPLETE SET.

MEOSIS: 46 CHROMOSOMES ARE COPIED AND THEN DIVIDE TWICE. PRODUCES DAUGHTER CELLS WITH HALF THE NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES, 23.
What's the alternative form of a gene?
ALLELES
ONE FROM EACH PARENT FOR A GIVEN TRAIT
Explain what a mutation is and how it occurs.
CHANGES IN DNA. CAN BE PASSED TO THE OFFSPRING WHEN IT OCCURS IN GAMETES OR SEX CELLS.
(short answer) Explain what type of cell your skin cell is. How does it divide and how many chromosomes are present in the nucleus?
SKIN IS A SOMATIC CELL
INCLUDES ALL CELLS IN BPDY EXCEPT SEX CELLS OR GAMETES.
CONTAIN 46 CHOROMOSOMES.
CELL DIVISON WOULD BE THROUGH MITOSIS.
Why is it important (evolution) that there is recombination of the genes in meiosis?
PROVIDE GENETIC DIVERSITY FOUND WITHIN A SPECIES. NEED GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR SURVIVAL OF SPECIES.
What's the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction?
ASEXUAL: DONT NEED A PARTNER. BOTH GENDERS CAN REPRODUCE.

SEXUAL: MUST FIND A MATE
Why do organims engage in sexual reproduction even though it's not necessary to create new organisms?
THEY ENGAGE TO ENSURE VARIATION WITHIN THE SPECIES SINCE ASEXXUAL REPRODUCTION DOES NOT.
How does sexual reproduction generate individual variation or uniqueness?
GENERATES INDIVIDUAL VARIATION BY PRODUCING GAMETES DURING MEOISIS.
What's recombination?
THE RESULT OF THE TWO SETS OF CHORMOSOMES THAT COME TOGETHER DURING FERTILIZATION.
The Spanish Flu killed over _____ people.
50 MILLION
Surface of a virsus is covered with two types of ______.
PROTEINS. H AND N.
The influenza virus differs from our cells in that it uses ______ instead of DNA as its genetic material.
RNA
Give exaple of the ultimate parasite and list the charactertics of a virsus.
ULTIMATE PARASITE: INFLUENZA VIRSUSES

LACK THE ABILITY TO METABOLIZE ENERGY FOR GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION.
Once inside a hostcell, how does the influennza virus use the cell to reproduce itself?
THE VIRAL RNA REPLICATES ITSELF AND MRNA IS MADE. NEWLY FORMED RNA GENOME AND PROTEINS MIGRATE TO THE MEMBRANE AND ARE PINCHED OFF IN HOST CELL MEMBRANE.
What are the most common elements in the universe?
HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, CARBON
The human genome consists of more than _______ bases.
3 BILLION
_____ is the process if making an RNA copy of a gene.
TRANSCRITPTION
Name the four major biological molecules used to make a virus.
LIPIDS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, PROTEINS AND CARBOHYDRATES.

PROTEINS: BIND TO HOST CELLS
LIPIDS: MAKE MEMBRANE OF VIRUS
RNA: GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE FLU VIRUS.
5 Characteristics of for survival that all independent life forms must possess.
1.) SAME BUILDING BLOCKS FOR CONSTRUCTING MOLECULES
2.) SAME GENTETIC CODE
3.) SAME BIOSYNTHERIC PROCESSES AND MACHINERY
4.) SAME ENZYMES SERVING AS CATALYSTS FOR SIMILAR BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS
5.) MEMBRANE TO SERVE AS A CONTAINER FOR CELLULAR ACTIVITES
What are the steps and what happens in parts of the cell?
TAKES PLACE IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE CELL AND IS WHERE AN RNA COPY OF THE GENE IS PRODUCED. THE RNA THEN GOES TO THE CYTOPLASM WHERE TRANSLATION OCCURS.
Name the four nucleic bases.
A (ADENINE)
T (THYMINE)
G (GUANINE)
C (CYTOSINE)
Define Transcription.
SHORT SEGMENT OF THE DNA IS COPIED INTO ANOTHER TYPE OF NUCLEIC ACID KNOWN AS RNA.
The first human pharmaceutical produced using genetic engineering was _____.
INSULIN
There is a _____ chance that you are consuming GM food.
75%
The human genome consists of roughly _____ bases.
3 BILLION
How was genetic engineering used to produce insulin for diabetes?
USING RESTRICTION ENZYMES, ABLE TO CUT HUMAN INSULIN GENE OUT OF HUMAN DNA AND INSERT THAT GENE INTO THE GENOME OF BACTERIA.
How is BT corn different from regular corn and how is that difference beneficial to the plant?
Bt CORN CONTAINS A TOXIN FROM BACTERIA. PLANTS PRODUCES IT AND ITS LEATHAL TO SOME INSECTS. LESS DAMAGE TO PLANTS.
Segment of DNA inherited from your mother for a certain characteristic called an ______.
ALLELE
_____ disorders are caused by defective genes in the non-sex chromosomes.
CHROMOSOMAL(AUTOSOMAL)
Tay-sachs disease and cystic fibrosis are inherited as _____ disorders.
GENETIC (SEX LINKED)
What is a multifactorial polygenic disorder?
INVOVLES MULTIPLE GENES WITH MUTATIONS. MUTATIONS DONT CAUSE DISEASE.
Insulin is produced by the _____ of the panceras.
BETA-CELLS
_____ is the hormone that signals glucose uptake by body cells, thus reducing blood glucose levels.
INSULIN
_____ is the hormone that's involved in increasing the blood glucose levels.
GLUCAGON
A child is born with a defective heart due to an error in gastrulation. This error occured in the ______.
1st TRIMESTER or MESADERM LAYER
After the egg is fertilized, the resulting cell is known as an ____.
EMBRYO
The correct developmental pathway of the fertilized egg is...
ZYGOTE, MURULA, BLASTULA, GASTRULA
A zygote undergoes several rounds of cell division, resulting in a ball of cells know as a _____
MURULA
A _____ is formed when the morula is transformed into a hallow ball of cells.
BLASTULA
_______ is the process where the cells of the blastocyst begin to flow inwards to the other side of the blastocyst, resulting in three distinct layers.
GASTRULATION
List the three layers of gastrulation.
ECOTDERM(NERVE CELLS) MESODERM(MUSCLES) ENDODERM(LUNGS)
____ genes are important for directing the differentation and migration of cells in body pattern formation.
HOMEOBOX
Genes responsible for bilateral body plant development?
HOMEOBOX GENES
What evidence suggest that these genes have been in use for 500 million years?
THE SAME PATTERNS IN ALL ORGANISMS
The operational sex ratio is a ratio between _____ males to _____ females.
SEXUALLY RECEPTIVE
SEXUALLY RECEPTIVE
Why is there male competetion?
WANT TO GET GENES IN GENE POOL.
What is the operational sex ratio? (OSR)
FEWER EGGS THAN SPERM, MALES COMPETE, FEMALES CHOOSE
______ is a type of male competetion where the males search for a mate with females as soon as they are sexually receptive.
SCRAMBLE COMPETETION
The ibex is an example of what type of tatic of male competition?
Fighting, violent battles
_____ is a catergory of male attraction statergies where the male will have showy feathers to attract females.
ORANAMENTAL DISPLAY
What is a Lek performance?
MALES USE A DANCE AND VOCAL PERFORMANCES TO ATTRACT FEMALES
Whats the difference between intasexual and intersexual?
INTRASEXUAL: LESS LIMITING SEX (MALES) COMPETE AGAINST EACH OTHER TO GAIN ACCESS TO FEMALES. COMPETETION ONLY BETWEEN MALES

INTERSEXUAL: MALES COMPETE TO EXCITE AND CHARM FEMALES. FEMALES SELECT MOST AGREEABLE MATE PARTNER.
Whats a postive and negative to gentic engineering?
POSITIVE: BT CORN RESISTS PESTICIDES AND SOY BEANS RESISTS HERBICIDES

NEGATIVE: REDUCE THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CROPS
How much of the human genome is "junk DNA?"
98.5%
What are the three genetic components that make up junk DNA?
PSEUDOGENES, REPEATING SEQUENCES AND TRANSPOSONS.