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220 Cards in this Set

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What is R-selection?
Reproductive stratergy
Many organisms that live in an enviroment with unstable resources and produce a large number of offspring
What is K-selection?
Reproductive stratergy
low reproductive rate
live in an environment with predictable resources and a low predation rate. Most of the young survive into adulthood and reproduce successfully.
What is Carrying Capacity?
the maximum number of individuals of a given species that a given area can support for a prolonged period
Carrying Capacity and r-selection.
In r-selection, the low survivability of the offspring because of unpredictable environmental conditions forces the parents to produce more young than they can support. In this case, the number of offspring exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment.
Carrying Capacity and K-selection.
In K-selection, the reproductive strategy is to produce only the number of offspring that can survive within the carrying capacity of the environment.
The causes of human overpopulation can be attributed to the following factors.
Exceeding the carrying capacity of ecological niches

Size of the population exceeding available resources

An unsustainable use and depletion of resources

An large increase in birth and survival rates
Exponential growth
The growth in the world human population followed a path is that is commonly observed in the growth of all living organisms. Where there is unrestricted growth at a constant rate.
Consequences of Overpopulation:
Famine
Deforestation
Pandemic diseases
War
Child poverty
High birth rate
Illiteracy
Unemployment
Rural problems
Reduction in arable land
Poor diet
Reduction in the GDP
Sanitation breakdown
Low revenue for government
Increased crime rate
Mass extinction of other species
In the next 50 years, the U.S. population is expected to grow by
about 100 million and will reach close to 400 million people. This population expansion is important to ensure that there will be enough young people to support the elderly population.
Within one hundred years the population of Japan will decline by
50%
Within one hundred years the population of Russia will decline by
20%
The environment influences population size by affecting the ______________ _____________ used by the organisms.
reproductive stratergies
The production of a large number of offspring by organisms in an environment with unstable resources is called __________________.
r-selection
_________________ reproductive strategy is characterized by a low reproductive rate.
k-selection
The growth in the world human population follows a path commonly observed in all living organisms called ____________ _______________.
expotential growth
In 1979 the Chinese government introduced the ___________ per family policy with the slogan “Late, long, and few”.
one child
Unmarried youth in Japan are known as _______________ _____________.
parasite singles
In a country that has excellent healthcare and abundant resources the predicted reproductive strategy is ________________.
k-selection
By 2050 the African population will be ___________ the size of Europe’s.
triple
______________ is the number one cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.
aids
When faced with a high infant mortality rate a population will us the ____________ reproductive strategy.
r/k selection
The population of the world is predicted to be __________________ in 2050.
9 to 11 billion
Explain the r-selection reproductive strategy.
R-selection reproductive strategy is used in an environment with unstable resources to produce a large number of offspring. Because many offspring die in unstable environments the production of more offspring than can survive ensures that the line will continue.
How does the American coot offer an intriguing example of the r-selection strategy?
The female coot normally lay up to 7 eggs during each mating season. When food is limited the female coot will select the chick with the brightest head to feed and will sometimes vigorously shake the heads of the other chicks so they can no longer beg for food. During a season where food is abundant most of the coot chicks will survive because the parents find enough food to feed them all.
Explain the K-selection reproductive strategy.
The K-selection reproductive strategy is characterized by a low reproductive rate. Species that use this strategy usually live in an environment with predictable resources and low predation rate. Most young survive into adulthood and reproduce successfully.
Explain the concept of the carrying capacity.
The carrying capacity concept is related to the r/K selection theory. During r-selection the low survivability of offspring due to environment forces the parents to produce more young than they can support. With this the number of offspring exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment. In K-selection the object is to produce only the number of offspring that can survive within the carrying capacity of the environment. If the number of offspring in this case exceeds the carrying capacity there will be unnecessary waste.
Differentiate between r selection and K selection
r-selection is associated with high fertility rate, uncertain resources and high infant mortality. K-selection is associated with low fertility rate, stable environment and low infant mortality.
Explain Carrying Capacity.
The ability of an environment to sustain the population of a species in a steady-state population density. OR the maximum number of individuals of a given species that a given area can support for a prolonged period.
Explain the significance of agriculture and population growth.
The development of an agricultural society at about 10,000 years ago was largely responsible for expanding the human population.
Explain exponential growth
Exponential growth is when there is unrestricted growth at a constant rate.
Explain the one-child per family policy and how it has helped and hurt China.
The one-child per family policy was introduced in the 1970s to control the human population in China. This policy has reduced China’s population by 300-400 million people. I has aided in economic growth, reduced unemployment and improved health and welfare of women and children. Negative consequences include demographic changes, sex imbalance due to gender discrimination and psychological consequences of being an only child.
Why has the population of Japan declined in recent years and what will happen if this trend continues?
Japan’s fertility rate is 1.3 children per woman, well below the replacement rate of 2 children per woman. The Japanese youth do not feel the urgency to have children. They are more interested in pursuing careers and other interests. If this fertility rate remains at this level or below the Japanese population will be cut in half by the end of this century.
What are some of the negative consequences of the long life expectancy and low birth rate in Japan?
There will soon not be enough young people entering the work force to support those who are retired. The productivity of society will drop because there will be fewer workers but also fewer customers. Without a robust consumer market many businesses will fail to be profitable. Government revenues will decline and social services will enter bankruptcy. The financial problems might be large enough to undermine the global economy and world stability.
How has AIDS affected the population of sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS is the number one cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. It is wiping out the adults between the ages of 20 and 60. The population pyramid of countries ravaged by AIDS has taken on a haunting shape. There is a large number of children at the base with few surviving elderly on the top but no adults in the middle.
How is India an example of r-selection?
In Uttar Pradesh one in every 10 children dies before the age of five. Due to the high infant mortality rate more infants are produced than can be adequately supported.
The 6 billionth baby will enjoy many birthrights and be able to fulfill his or her potential depending on many things. What are some of the odds the 6 billionth baby will face?
1 out of 3 he/she is born to extreme poverty. 4 out of 10 he/she will be marginally better off. 1 in 10 he/she is born into relative prosperity. If the child is a girl she sill be worse off, get less food and less likely to receive an education than her male siblings.
Compare and Contrast r and K selection.
R and K selection are both reproductive strategies used depending on the conditions of the environment. Both will ensure that the genetic line of the species is continued.



r-selection is the reproductive strategy used in an environment with unstable resources where a large number of offspring are produced. The production of a large number of offspring is done in situations with high infant mortality rate to ensure that some of the young will survive. Animals that use this strategy have a guarantee that some young will survive in a bad year and that a large number of young will thrive in a good year.



K-selection is the reproductive strategy characterized by a low reproductive rate. Species that use this strategy live in an environment with predictable resources and a low predation rate. Most young survive into adulthood and reproduce successfully. In these environments producing more offspring than the parents can care for is an unnecessary waste.
Describe structures of the eye.
The Eye - An important structure is the lens. The shape of the lens is changed by small muscles that are adjacent to the lens. This action brings an object into sharp focus onto the retina. The retina lines a cup-shaped body that is filled with an aqueous solution known as the vitreous humor. This special solution is 99% water, but it has a gelatinous viscosity, which is 2 to 4 times greater than the viscosity of water. Its main function is to support the eye and to serve as a cushion against external pressure and shock. Visual processing is a complex task that involves up to two thirds of the human brain.
Almost ______ of all neurons in the brain are located in the cerebral cortex.
2/3
Dark matter is...
a one-quarter inch thick layer of neurons on the surface of the brain.
_____ of the cortex contain the nerve processes. Because of its whitish appearance, this layer is known as the white matter.
inner layers
______ is the brain’s crowning glory with its immense complexity of neuronal connections. It is the thinking cap of the brain; it organizes and filters external information to provide meaning and ultimately, consciousness.
cerbral cortex
Information from the retina is transmitted to the visual cortex by a combination of ________ and ___________ (chemicals that are released into synaptic clefts).
electric signals and neurotransmitters
Neurons in the cortex are organized in ______.
modular units
neurons undergo a continuing ________ through the constant firing of electrical impulses.
“conversation”
The brain’s ability to filter out visual information is known as
subliminal perception.
_______ occurs because there are separate pathways that can be used for perception.
blind sight
after the visual cortex has processed the visual information, the temporal lobe becomes involved and is responsible for carrying out __________.
the recognition process.
The main avenue that we use to acquire information about the external world is __________.
Vision
Contrary to popular belief, we do not see with our eyes but actually see with our __________.
Brain
90% of all information that enters our eyes is recognized only by our __________.
Unconsciousness
Our ability to focus our vision is dependent on muscles changing the shape of the __________.
lens.
Incoming images are sharply focused on the back surface of the eye known as the __________.
retina
To cushion it against external pressure and shock, the eye is filled with a gelatinous liquid known as the __________.
Vitreous humor
The cells lining the retina that are responsible for sensing monochrome vision are known as __________ cells.
rod
Almost 2/3 of all neurons in the human brain are located in the “mammalian brain,” otherwise known as the __________.
Cerebral cortex
Basic physiological processes such as breathing and digestion are controlled by the __________.
Brain stem
The human midbrain, which is involved in the fight or flight response, is also known as the __________ brain.
Reptilian
The portion of the brain where visual information is processed is known as the __________.
Visual cortex
The visual cortex is located in the __________ lobe of the brain.
Occipital
The left occipital lobe receives visual information from the __________ eye.
Right
Blind sight results not from the primary visual pathways involving the visual cortex but through another pathway found in the __________ brain.
Reptilian or midbrain
The ability of athletes to sense other players and make passes without looking is a result of exceptional __________.
Blind sight
In humans, language originates in the __________ side of the brain while motor skills originate in the __________ side.
Left, Right
The bundle of nerve cells that carries visual information from the eye to the visual cortex is known as the __________.
Optic nerve
Briefly describe the structure of the eye including the function of the lens, retina and vitreous humor.
The eye contains a lens behind the opening of the eye (pupil) that is attached to two muscles. The muscles can change the shape of the lens in order to focus light onto the retina. The retina is the lining of the back of the eye that contains the cells that receive light input. The vitreous humor is a gelatinous liquid that fills the eye in order to protect it from pressure or shock.
Explain the image quality that the eye perceives and where the visual image that we perceive actually comes from.
The images that come from the eye are really nothing more than a set of dots of light that the eye gets from scanning an image. Those dots of light are sensed by the cells of the retina and then sent to the brain where a sharp image is created for us to actually perceive.
What is the cerebral cortex, where is it located and what is its structure?
The cerebral cortex is the most external part of the brain, covering the entire brain in humans. The cerebral cortex is rich in neurons, containing nearly 2/3 of all the neurons found in the brain. It has a ¼ inch thick layer of neurons known as dark matter and an inner layer, containing the nerve processes, known as white matter.
what are the two more primitive parts of the human brain found below the cortex? Briefly explain their evolutionary history.
The two other portions are the reptilian brain and the brainstem. The brainstem is a remnant of the first brain that evolved in fish. The midbrain or reptilian brain is more recent than the brainstem. It first appeared in reptiles such as the dinosaurs and exists today as the human midbrain.
Where is the visual cortex and what is its role in perception?
The visual cortex is located in the back of the brain, in an area known as the occipital lobe. The visual cortex is the part of the brain that receives visual input from the eyes via the optic nerve and where that input is initially processed.
What is subliminal perception and what evidence supports its existence?
Subliminal perception is the brain’s ability to filter out visual information and only allow recognition of that input which is important. When a word is presented to a person at a speed of 1/1000th of a second most people have no awareness of seeing the word, but 2 closely spaced electrical signals in the brain indicate that the visual system of the brain does indeed see the word.
Explain blind sight, and why it exists in humans.
Blind sight is a phenomenon that suggests that some of our visual perception is beyond our conscious awareness. It is a visual pathway that goes through the reptilian brain and primarily only perceives movement without any fine details as to what is moving. Reptiles only needed to see that an insect was passing by, they didn’t need to know exactly what it looked like. This type of sight remains in humans in the reptilian or midbrain.
Explain how severing the corpus callosum results in odd perceptual occurrences such as those seen in someone treated for severe epilepsy.
When the corpus callosum is severed, a common treatment for severe epileptics, the two halves of the brain can no longer communicate. Therefore, when someone sees something with the left eye and that image is processes in the right brain, they can not tell you what it was because their right visual cortex cannot communicate with the language centers found in the left brain. They can however draw the object with their left hand without being able to tell you what it is.
Explain the structural evidence from our brain that supports the gradual evolution of the human brain rather than a one time evolutionary step.
Early fish had a very primitive brain that allowed for the regulation of basic physiological functions. A similar structure exists in the modern human brain. This structure is the brainstem and it controls basic physiological activities such as breathing and digestion. The next step in brain complexity is clearly seen in reptiles. They had a more complex brain that provided for basic vision detection, such as sensing movement, as well as providing desire to hunt and reproduce. The human midbrain is very similar to the reptilian brain. It serves us in the fight or flight response, plays a role in desires and also allows for blind sight, which is very similar to the visual capabilities of reptiles. The fact that humans have this compartmentalized brain structure below the cortex, which is a recent development found only in mammals, suggests that evolution has kept adding onto the first brain that developed in fish and the remnants of those early brain structures are still present today in the human brainstem and midbrain.
Explain, using at least two examples from lecture or the text, how our visual perception is affected by more than just the incoming light impulses gathered by the eye.
Many factors influence our visual perception other than just the light signals gathered by the eye. Physical aspects of our brains can influence our perception. Damage to particular areas can influence how we perceive our world. For example, when the corpus callosum is severed, the halves of the brain cannot communicate with each other anymore, and thus input from the right eye is processed differently from information taken in by the left eye because the two halves can no longer integrate and view images as one. Also, damage to the parietal lobe can effect the incorporation and processing of visual information from a particular field resulting in visual neglect, where input from one eye is completely disregarded or ignored. This also affects our ability to remember images correctly. Finally, emotion can influence our visual perception. This is shown in people with Capgras’ delusion where the amygdala, which is involved in emotion, is severed from the rest of the brain. When we cannot associate emotions with particular visual input, that input can take on new meaning. Therefore, what emotional mood we are in when we visualize something can affect or interpretation of that input.
________ is a viral infection that targets the brain and the central nervous system.
Viral encephalitis
There are two major groups of viruses that are responsible for causing viral encephalitis.
arboviruses and enteroviruses
The human brain weighs an average of _____.
3 pounds
the brain contains over ______ nerve cells
100 billion
Each nerve cell is capable of connecting with ______ other nerve cells through a complex network of axons and dendrites.
25,000
Even though the brain makes up only 2% of the body weight, it uses _____ of the body’s energy supply.
20%
They invented muscle for movement, and to coordinate their movements, they also invented nerve cells.
moon jellies
_______ have long cellular processes known as axons and dendrites.
nerve cells
The _______ conduct electrical signals toward the cell body, whereas the ______ conduct electrical signals away from the cell body.
dendrites and axons
The _______ serves as a physical separation between the neuromuscular junctions or the neural junctions.
synaptic cleft
Basic functions of nerves have remained essentially unchanged for ________ million years.
500
West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis are examples of diseases caused by _______.
arboviruses
Research has demonstrated that the __________ is the processing center in the brain for short-term memory.
hippocampus
The technique known as ________________________ can detect a constant stream of electrical signals.
(EEG) electroencephalogram
The brain cannot survive more than a few minutes without ____________ and ____________.
oxygen and glucose
____________ cells are operated by a combination of electrical currents and chemical transmitters.
nerve
Neurotransmitters are released into the _________ _____________ when released by the axon.
synaptc clefts
Explain the effects of viral encephalitis.
Viral encephalitis targets the brain and the central nervous system. Some affect the entire brain whereas others target only specific regions of the brain. Examples include rabies which affects primarily the motor cortex and polio which also targets the motor cortex and can cause paralysis.
Explain what has happened to Clive Wearing.
Clive Wearing became ill with viral encephalitis. The virus destroyed his hippocampus and he also suffered damage to the frontal cortex. Clive lost his short-term memory due to the damage to the hippocampus but he retains some of his long-term memory.
Why is the human brain the most complex structure in the universe?
The human brain weighs an average of 3 lb and contains over 100 billion nerve cells. The complexity of the brain results from more than just the number of nerve cells. It results mainly from the typed and numbers of connections the nerve cell has with other nerve cells. Each nerve cell is capable of connecting 25,000 other nerve cells.
How is it that the Moon Jelly invented animal intelligence?
In the Cambrian ocean, moon jellies swam with their pulsating movements. They invented muscle for movement and also the nerve cells to coordinate that movement. Nerve cells found in moon jellies are essentially the same as the nerve cells found in the human brain. The nerve cells have not changed their basic operational principles.
Explain how the land flatworm is an example of animal intelligence.
The land flatworm’s brain consists of less than several hundred neurons yet it is still a formidable hunter. Its primitive eyes allow it to sense light direction and intensity. Since the Cambrian period flatworms have conquered both the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Flatworms have also become one of the most efficient animal parasites in the animal kingdom.
Explain how the mud wasp exhibits mastery at building despite a small brain and limited neuronal capacity.
During mating season the female mud wasp digs a hole in the ground and connects it to the surface with a tunnel. This hole will serve as a nursery. To prevent other wasps from entering the tunnel and raiding the young the female mud wasp creates a perfectly shaped mud bell with smooth interior surface. This bell with smooth inner surface and perfect height keeps other wasps from entering the tunnel.
How does the honey bee provide an example of how the brain can change and adapt due to greater demand for brain power?
During most of their adult life, honey bee workers perform many duties and their simple brain is more than adequate to carry out these tasks. In the last two weeks of their life, however, all honey bee workers transform into foragers. To be successful a honey bee must learn to use the sun as a navigational tool and determine the time of day. They must also remember when flowers are open and be able to report the location of good foraging sites. Their brains add an additional 160,000 neurons in preparation to becoming a forager
Why is a large mental capacity important to meerkats?
Meerkats possess a large brain in comparison to their body size. They need a large mental capacity to navigate complex social interactions. They live in groups as large as 40 with an alpha breeder and other family members. The young require constant parental care. The adult members take turns caring for the young while others forage for food. Some even serve as sentries and make warning calls when a predator is spotted.
How is the rhesus macaque an example of animal intelligence?
The rhesus macaque is a social animal living in a society governed by a hierarchical system. The members live together for safety and companionship. A dominant male determines which mates the females will have and enforces the social structure by building alliances with other males. The males in the alliance serve the dominant male by watching the other members and in return receive mating privileges.
How does the chimpanzee exhibit intelligence?
Chimpanzees are highly social animals. They live in groups as large as 150 individuals. They use grooming to build alliances. When a male makes a bid for the dominant position he uses alliances to gain support from other members of the troop. They have developed highly sophisticated social and political skills similar to those in human society. They have been observed to rage war against neighboring groups.
How are human and chimpanzee societies similar but also different?
Humans and chimpanzees live in a fission-fusion society with frequent changes in alliances between both individuals and groups. As groups within the human society become bigger the brain power is needed to keep the group together also becomes larger. Humans do not use grooming to build bonds but use conversation. Conversation is an efficient way to develop an understanding of another and to establish friendships.
Explain why the human brain has evolved to its current complexity.
The human brain may have evolved to its complexity because of the need to attract mates. Language is a powerful way to attract a mate through the demonstration of intelligence, wit and eloquence. Some biologists have proposed that sexual selection is one factor that has driven the extravagant development of the human brain.
What is the energy consumption of the human brain in relation to its size? Why is the brains complexity not just in the number of nerve cells, and how many connections does each nerve in the brain make with other nerves? What is one hypothesis for why humans evolved large brains? How was language important to this evolution?
The brain makes up 2% of the body weight, but it uses 20% of the body’s energy supply. The brain’s complexity results mainly from the types and numbers of connections that each nerve cell has with other nerve cells. Each nerve cell is capable of connecting with 25,000 other nerve cells. The human brain may have also have evolved its complexity because of the need to attract mates, with some biologists proposing that sexual selection is one of the factors that drove the extravagant development of the human brain. Language is a powerful way to attract a mating partner through the demonstration of intelligence, wit, and eloquence. As such, language is a good way to showcase an individual’s reproductive fitness.
______ memory, which is very short, and results from sensory input such as visual, auditory, olfactory or touch.
sensory
________ memory, which allows us to recall information such as a phone number just long enough to use it. The portion of the brain responsible for short-term memory is the hippocampus.
short-term
_______ memory which consists of important information that can be kept from years up to for the rest of our lives.
long term
LTP, which stands for
Long-term potentiation.
The part of the brain responsible for integrating short-term and long-term memory is the
Frontal lobe.
________ also known as explicit memory, is memory that is familiar to us.
Declarative memory
The two types of declarative memory are
semantic memory and episodic memory
_______ is memory that is associated with words and numbers. It is therefore heavily reliant on language. Because it is reliant on language and words, this type of memory can be independent of context and thus assume and abstract quality.
Semantic memory
_________ are ways of facilitating memory of factual information by associating it with something meaningless that helps recall the factual information.
Mnemonic devices
_________ also known as implicit memory, is memory that is acquired and recalled without conscious awareness of doing so. It is generally associated with motor activities such as riding a bike or playing the piano and is acquired through repetition.
Procedural memory
Memory that allows us to remember a phone number just long enough to make a call is known as __________ memory.
Short-term
As seen in Jeremy’s case, the portion of the brain responsible for short-term memory is the __________.
Hippocampus
The type of memory that results from visual, auditory or olfactory input is known as ________.
Sensory
Long-term memory results from a process known as LTP, which stands for __________.
Long-term potentiation
Long-term memory is stored in the columns of neurons found in the __________.
Cerebral cortex
The part of the brain responsible for integrating short-term and long-term memory is the __________ lobe.
Frontal
The type of memory that we have conscious awareness of accessing is known as __________ memory.
Declarative or Explicit
The type of declarative memory that is associated with words and numbers is known as __________ memory.
Semantic
The type of declarative memory that is associated with emotions and sensation is known as __________ memory.
Episodic of Autobiographical
The type of memory that is acquired and recalled subconsciously is known as __________ memory.
Procedural or Implicit
Procedural memory is usually associated with motor activities and is acquired through ________ of an activity.
Repetition
In the early to mid 1900’s, people with mental illness were given a treatment where their frontal lobes were destroyed, a procedure known as prefrontal __________.
Lobotomy
The large hippocampi found in London cab drivers are indicators of better than average __________ memory.
Visual/Spatial
As seen in the case of Bill the lawyer, the ability to think ahead and predict consequences of one’s actions exists in the __________ lobe of the brain.
Frontal
Sensory memory generally lasts for less than ­­­­­­­­__________.
1 second
The adding on to animal brains during evolution has resulted in the __________ nature of the human brain.
Modular
If not processed further into long-term memory, short-term memory only lasts for a few ­­­­__________.
Minutes
Briefly explain the three main types of memory.
The first type of memory is sensory memory, which is very short, and results from sensory input such as visual, auditory, olfactory or touch. The second type of memory is short-term memory, which allows us to recall information such as a phone number just long enough to use it. Finally, long-term memory consists of important information that can be kept from years up to for the rest of our lives.
What part of the brain is responsible for short-term memory and how do we know that this is the case?
The portion of the brain responsible for short-term memory is the hippocampus. We know that this portion of the brain is responsible because people that have damage to their hippocampi tend to loose some or all of their short term-term memory while other types of memory remain unchanged. Therefore, the short-term memory must reside in the hippocampus.
Explain how long-term memories are formed.
Long-term memories are formed through a process called long-term potentiation. Repeated input of knowledge results in repeated stimulation of neurons, which, in turn, causes two cytological changes in those neurons that result in the formation of memory. Those changes that occur are an increase in the rate and magnitude of firing in those neurons along with an increase in neuronal connections among the neurons involved in the long-term memory.
What is declarative memory and list the two types of declarative memory?
Declarative memory, also known as explicit memory, is memory that is familiar to us. We have a conscious awareness of accessing this type of memory. This memory is used in a wide variety of information including names, places factual information, ideas and can also be tied to emotion. The two types of declarative memory are semantic memory and episodic memory, which is also known as autobiographical memory.
Explain the characteristics of semantic memory and for what type of information is it used?
Semantic memory is memory that is associated with words and numbers. It is therefore heavily reliant on language. Because it is reliant on language and words, this type of memory can be independent of context and thus assume and abstract quality.
Explain episodic memory, its characteristics and what part of the brain is responsible for the effectiveness of this type of memory?
Episodic memory is a type of memory that is associated with the senses and emotion. This type of memory is very powerful because of the emotional attachment with the memory. This emotional attachment results from the amygdale, the portion of the brain responsible for emotional memory.
What is a mnemonic device and give an example of one?
Mnemonic devices are ways of facilitating memory of factual information by associating it with something meaningless that helps recall the factual information. Examples: Spatial mnemonic such as using knuckles to remember the days in a month. Musical mnemonic as in the song about DNA structure sung to Row Row Row your boat. Personal mnemonic as in the story devised to remember the order of the planets.
What is procedural memory and what type of information does it contain?
Procedural memory, also known as implicit memory, is memory that is acquired and recalled without conscious awareness of doing so. It is generally associated with motor activities such as riding a bike or playing the piano and is acquired through repetition.
Explain how animals such as elephants have some memory capabilities similar to or better than those of humans. How does animal memory differ fundamentally from that of humans?
Elephants have very powerful visual/spatial memory. They use this memory in order to find underground sources of water within their home range of hundreds of square miles during times of drought. Animal memory differs from human memory in that humans can use memory in order to plan ahead and create thought.
Compare and contrast declarative and procedural memory. How does each type contribute to our daily functioning?
Declarative memory is memory that we are consciously aware of possessing and recalling. It includes semantic and episodic memory. Semantic memory is associated with words and numbers and requires language while episodic memory is associated with the senses and emotion. Declarative memory is the memory that we use every day to function at work or recall information for an exam. Procedural memory is memory that we are not aware of acquiring or recalling. It is most often associated with motor activities such as riding a bike or playing piano. It is formed from repetition and used in the daily motor functions that we need without having to think about doing them.
In 1950’s, the drug _______________ was developed to help allergies but was found to have a profound effect on people with psychotic diseases.
Chlorpromazine, thorazine
_______________ therapy, where an electrical current is passed through the brain and acts as a reset mechanism, is still used today to treat patients with severe depression who fail to respond to all other treatments.
Electroconvulsive
______________ is a type of mental illness where the patient suffers from severe mood swings of extreme highs and extreme lows.
manic depression
During a depressive episode the production of the neurotransmitter _______________ is deficient.
Serotonin
During a manic depression low episode, the production of the neurotransmitter _______________ is deficient.
serotonin
_______________ , a class of drugs, were developed to prevent the removal of serotonin in the synapse.
Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor’s or SSRI’s
Alzheimer’s disease results from the accumulation of protein aggregates known as ____________ _____________.
Amyloid plaques
The first region of the brain affected by the accumulation of protein aggregates is the _________________.
Hippocampus
The brains of Alzheimer’s patients have characteristic _______________ plaques and _____________, which will prevent neural transmission and eventually cause cell death.
amyloid, protein fibrils
There were 3 main types of treatments used in the first half of the 20th century to try and cure mental illness. Explain the different treatments used.
The three treatments were electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in which electrical current was passed through the brain to cause seizures, insulin shock therapy in which patients received a massive dose of insulin to induce a state of hypoglycemia, and prefrontal lobe lobotomy which removed parts of the frontal lobe.
Explain how the discovery of psychiatric drugs helped revolutionize treatment for severely ill mental patients.
Psychotic drugs were developed in the early 1950s. The drug, chlorpromazine (thorazine), was used to treat patients who suffered from severe psychotic diseases such as schizophrenia. Before thorazine the positive long-term prognosis for psychotic patients was less than 20%. After thorazine this improved to over 70%.
In 1963 a deinstitutionalization policy was enacted. Explain what the deinstitutionalization policy was and why it didn’t work quite the way people thought it would.
Deinstitutionalization was created to release mentally ill patients from their institutions in hopes that they would receive humane care for less cost. These people, however, became homeless and many communities found it difficult to deal with the new mentally-disturbed citizens. Without the support of the community many people ended up living a life worse than that in the mental hospitals.
ECT has become a last resort treatment for some people with severe depression. The exact physiological mechanism by which it works remains unclear. Explain what is thought to happen when ECT is administered.
It is thought that the electrical current that passes through the brain somehow resets the neural circuitry by inducing a seizure. Patients wake up without any memory of their hospitalization and treatment and their depression gone. This is not a cure but merely causes the depression to go away for a while.
Manic depression is characterized by 2 distinct phases. Describe each phase.

Manic phase is characterized by exaggerated mood elation and many also experience great anticipation or excitement for the future. The manic phase has also been associated with extreme creativity where affective individuals are driven to achieve superhuman tasks with unbounded energy.
The depressive phase occurs shortly after the manic phase. Patients will become severely depressed and see their lives as nothing but a failure. They often times become suicidal during this phase.
Explain what is happening to people who have Alzheimer’s.
Alzheimer’s disease which begins in the hippocampus is caused by the accumulation of protein aggregates called amyloid plaques in the brain. The accumulation of amyloid occurs around nerve cells. These protein deposits block communication between nerve cells eventually leading to cell death.
________ where an electrical current is passed through the brain and acts as a reset mechanism, is still used today to treat patients with severe depression who fail to respond to all other treatments.
Electroconvulsive therapy
The drug _________ was developed to help allergies but was found to have a profound effect on people with psychotic diseases.
Chlorpromazine, (thorazine)
Before thorazine the positive long-term prognosis for psychotic patients was less than ____. After thorazine, it improved to over ____.
20% and 70%
The most authoritative source for diagnosing mental illnesses is the _____.
DSM-IV.
At the turn of the century there were only 12 recognizable mental illnesses, today there are
374.
________ is a type of mental illness where the patient suffers from severe mood swings of extreme highs and extreme lows
Manic depression or Bipolar Disease
In the_______ of manic depression patients experience exaggerated mood elation.
Manic phase
During a manic depression low episode, the production of the _________is deficient.
neurotransmitter serotonin
_________are a class of drugs that were developed to prevent the removal of serotonin in the synapse.
Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor’s (SSRIs)
_______ has been on the rise over the last 100 years because the life expectancy has increased from 47 years to 77 years.
Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease results from the accumulation of _________ in the brain.
amyloid plaques
The protein deposits________ _____ between nerve cells.
block communication
The _____ is the first brain area affected by the amyloid plaques and abnormal fibril formation.
hippocampus
The definition of life can be stated in the following simplistic terms.
* It must maintain its reproductive cycle
* It must continuously generate individual variations in the population
* Some members of the population must survive environmental changes
_________ is an attitude that regards humans as the central element of the universe and interprets reality exclusively in terms of human values and experiences.
Anthropocentrism
________ is an attitude that attributes human motivations, characteristics, or behaviors to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena.
Anthropomorphism
As predicted by the ___________, the male animals need to compete for the limited number of females.
operational sex ratio
The physical differences seen between males and females in species where males are polygamous and provide no parental care is known as
Sexual Dimorphism.
_______ reflects the quality of the genes that were used to direct the bilateral body plan
Facial symmetry
Human females were found to be attracted to males who had MHC Major (Histocompatability Genes ) proteins ________ from their own.
different
Courtship Examples Include
Marsh Harriers

Wandering Albatrosses

North America Grebes
________are a set of complex behavioral traits that are embedded in the genetic programs of biological organisms. FAPs can be divided into the following components.
Fixed-action patterns (FAP)
The migration and mating behavior of sockeye salmon results from a powerful biological drive that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors.
Drive
Once the early steps of the behavior are initiated, the entire sequence of steps will automatically follow until the action has been completed; these automatic steps form a motor program.
Motor Program
The process of this programmed learning is genetically controlled. Example: programmed learning is imprinting in ducklings (Goldeneyes).
Programmed Learning (imprinting)
________ are cues that trigger a FAP
Sign stimuli
Explanation of an animal's behavior based on trigger stimuli and internal mechanisms.
Proximate Causation
Explanation of an animal's behavior based on evolution - why this specific trait was favored by natural selection.
Ultimate Causation
Life with its ability to reproduce began on this planet __________ years ago.
3.7 billion
The physical differences seen between males and females in species where males are polygamous and provide no parental care is known as __________.
sexual dimorphism
A set of complex behavioral traits that are embedded in the genetic program of biological organisms are known as ________________.
fixed action pattterns
The attitude that interprets reality exclusively in terms of human values and experiences is known as __________.
anthropocentrism
The attitude that attributes hum motivations and characteristics to inanimate objects or animals is known as __________.
anthropomorphism
Fixed action patterns are initiated by some type of __________.
sign stimuli
In a fixed action pattern, profound physiological changes that result in expression of distinct behaviors are known as __________.
drive
Once behaviors of a fixed action pattern are initiated, an entire sequence of steps will automatically occur until completed. These steps are known as a __________.
motor program
The mechanism of how an organism behaves with regards to how stimuli are received and transformed into behavioral responses is known as __________ causation.
proximate
Because of this, which sex is more selective in choosing a mating partner and which is less selective?
Males, since they spend no time caring for young, try to impregnate any female they can find, not being selective at all.
Sexual dimorphism is the most extreme in what type of conditions?
Sexual dimorphism is most extreme in conditions where males are polygamous and provide no parental care.
Choosiness of which sex drives this dimorphism and give an example of an animal species with extreme sexual dimorphism?
Female choosiness in these conditions results in extravagant male physical traits that serve to attract females. Some examples of this sexual dimorphism include peacock tails and the large horns found on male ibexes.
Explain sign stimuli using the wolf spider as an example.
Sign stimuli are cues that trigger the behavioral traits that characterize a fixed action pattern. An example of sign stimuli are the large tufts of hair on the front legs of a male wolf spider. When a female sees those large tufts of hair, they become sexually receptive to mating with that male which is a fixed action pattern.
Briefly explain the two types of causation that underlie courtship in the animal world.
Proximate causation is the underlying principle that explains how an organism behaves during courtship. For example, it explains how an organism receives stimuli, how that stimulus is transformed into a behavior and what mechanisms are involved. Ultimate causations explain why an organism behaves the way it does. Ultimate causations are the purposes of courtship and mating behaviors.
Using the fostered Goldeneye duckling as an example, explain programmed learning or imprinting.
imprinting: who ducklings see first consider mother.

ex: if ducklings raise by female mallard(imprinted on him) it i will want to mate with female mallard not golden-eye
Explain the evolution of bonobo sexual behavior
recreational, peaceful

females bonded, dominant over males

reduce male hostility and agression
Explain the evolution of the chimpanzee sexual behavior.
male chimps behave violently, infanticide

females mate with many and paternity unknown
CAH can also affect gender determination. Describe CAH and give an example from class of how it plays a role in gender determination?
CAH: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic disorder where there is a mutation in a gene that encodes for 21 hydroxylase, which is necessary for the metabolism of steroid hormones in the adrenal glands. Without this enzyme, hormones such as cortisol, are not produced, resulting in an over production of testosterone.



In the case of Jason Peter, aka Christine, the embryo had the chromosomal complementation of XX, but since she had a mutated 21 hydroxylase gene her body produced excessive amounts of testosterone. The testosterone affected her developmental stages and allowed her body to develop male genitalia. She later had her genitalia surgically reconstructed to female genitalia and was give hormone therapy to stimulate her body to develop female characteristics.
There are a number of items that determine gender besides chromosomes. Describe what CAIS is and give an example from class of how this disorder affects gender?
CAIS: Complete androgen insensitive syndrome is a genetic disorder where a male embryo will develop as a female because the testosterone receptors are defective and cannot respond to testosterone.



Patients who suffer from CAIS have the chromosomal complementation of XY. However, the embryo failed to recognize the testosterone that was produced. In the case of Marilyn Seville, the gene that codes for the testosterone receptor was either missing or mutated. Thus, without the testosterone cues, the embryo developed as female even though she was XY.
What is protogyny? Explain using the sex determination process of wrasses.
organisms all begin their lives as females.

females lay egss in certain site dominated by males

male fertilizes all eggs when he dies one females claims territory and becomes male.
Kleinfelter and Turner syndromes result from nondisjunction. What are the sex chromosomal make ups of a person with each condition? Are people with these conditions fertile?
K- xxy
turner-xo
abnormal sexual development
number infertible
What is nondisjunction and what type of chromosomal anomalies does it result in when it occurs. How is this relevant to Down’s syndrome?
when abnormal chromosomal movement occurs during meoisis in formation of egg and sperm changes chromosome
Which hormone determines female secondary sexual characteristics and list 3 of those characteristics?
estradiol: breats development, promotes ovulation regulates menstraul cycle
Marilyn Seville is XY but developed as a female despite a functional SRY gene. Which gene is mutated in her case and how does this result in female development?
marilyn has CAIS, the SRY proteins had been trasformed to normal testes, but body cells don't recognize testosterone

mutation of testosterone receptors
The differences in physical appearance between males and females of some species such as ibexes and peacocks is known as __________.
Sexual dimorphism
Female reproductive organs responsible for egg production are __________ while in males, the organs responsible for sperm production are __________.
Ovaries, Testes
In the presence of estrogen, the internal female genetalia are formed from a set of tubes known as __________.
Mullerian ducts
Despite being genetically XY, people with mutated genes for testosterone receptors develop as females, a condition known as ­­____________________.
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or CAIS
Steroid hormones are produced from a fatty precursor commonly found in the cell membranes known as __________.
Cholesterol
An occurrence where paired chromosomes do not separate during meiosis and are both passed into the same gamete is known as __________.
Nondisjunction
In Turner syndrome, nondisjunction results in an individual with the sex chromosome compliment of __________.
XO
In Kleinfelter syndrome, as a result of nondisjunction, and individual has a sex chromosome complementation of __________.
XXY
The type of sequential sex determination where all organisms start life male and a breeding female is replaced by a male changing sex is known as __________.
Protandry
In a male embryo, what hormone primarily drives development of the reproductive system? Which primitive structures develop further and what structures do they ultimately become?
In an embryo destined to become a male, the primary sex hormone produced is testosterone. This hormone causes the Wolffian duct to develop into internal male genetalia including the corpora cavernosa, prostate, urethra and seminal vesicles. Finally, the cloaca develops into the external male genitalia including the glans penis and scrotum.
What is protogyny? Explain using the sex determination process of wrasses.
In a type of fish known as wrasses, there is one male that controls an area containing females and fertilizes all of the eggs they lay. When that dominant male dies, a female takes over, develops into a male and begins producing sperm. This sequential method of sec determination is known as protogyny.