• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/40

Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Behavioral Assessment:
How does a behavior occurs in the natural environment?
Indirect Assessment
Direct assessment
Direct assessment
Direct assessment: Direct observation and recording of the target behavior as it occurs
Observation Period:
When and Where should we observe?
When: Period when the target behavior is most likely to occur

Where:1) Natural Setting: Places where target behavior typically occurs (ex. Classroom)
2) Contrived setting: Setting not part of daily routine (ex. Playroom in clinic)
Indirect Assessment
Indirect Assessment:Interviews, questionnaires, and rating scale.
Measurement:
In which way can the target behavior be quantified?
Frequency
Rate
Duration
Intensity
Latency
FRDIL
Define Frequency
Frequency:number of times a behavior occurs in an observation period
Define Rate
Rate: the frequency of the behavior divided by the time of the observation period
Define Duration
Duration: total amount of time occupied by the behavior from onset to offset
Define Intensity
Intensity: Amount of force, energy, or exertion involved in the behavior (ex. For hitting – pounds per square inch)
Define Latency
Latency: the time from some stimulus event to the onset of the behavior
In which way can the target behavior be recorded?
Continuous recording
Product recording
Interval recording
Time Sample recording
Continuous recording
Continuous recording: recording every instance of target behavior during observation period
Product recording
Product recording:record the tangible outcome of permanent product of the occurrence of the behavior (consequence)
Interval recording
Interval recording: the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in consecutive intervals of time during an observation period (ex. Within 15 min intervals, does the behavior occur?
Time Sample recording
Time Sample recording: recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in discontinuous time intervals (time samples) during an observation period (ex. May be a 1 min time frame during a 15 min Interval)
Designs:How do we measure Behavior Change?
Baseline
Functional Relationship
A-B Design
A-B-A-B Reversal
Baseline
Baseline: Observation phase or non-treatment phase
Functional Relationship
Functional Relationship: Behavior changes as a function of the procedure
A-B Design
A-B Design: to compare Baseline and Treatment to determine whether the behavior changed in the expected way after treatment
A-B-A-B Reversal
A-B-A-B Reversal: Baseline and treatment phases implemented twice for one behavior of one subject. Demonstrates a functional relationship
Changing Criterion Design
Changing Criterion Design: Performance criteria are specified. Successive goal levels for the target behavior should change during treatment
GRAPHING AND MEASURING CHANGE
What are the three different multiple-baseline designs?
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Subjects Design
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Behaviors Design
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Settings Design:
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Subjects Design
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Subjects Design:
Refers to a baseline and a treatment phase for the same target behavior of two or more different subjects
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Behaviors Design
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Behaviors Design:
Refers to a baseline and a treatment phase for two or more target behaviors of the same subject
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Settings Design:
Multiple-Baseline-Across-Settings Design:
Refers to a baseline and a treatment phase for two or more settings in which the same target behavior of the same subject is measured
Reinforcement
Reinforcement: The process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequences/ stimulus that reliably follow its occurrence.
Stimulus
Stimulus: Is an object or event that can be detected by one of the senses, and thus has potential to influence the person
Operant Behavior
Operant Behavior: A behavior that is strengthened through the process of reinforcement.
Reinforcer
Reinforcer: The consequence or stimulus that strengthens an operant behavior
Positive Reinforcement
-The occurrence of a behavior
-is followed by the addition of a stimulus (a reinforcer) or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus.
-which results in the strengthening of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement:
-The occurrence of a behavior
-is followed by the removal of a stimulus (an aversive stimulus) or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus
-which results in the strengthening of the behavior
Unconditioned Reinforcers
Unconditioned Reinforcers: they can function as reinforcers the first time they are presented; no prior experience with these stimuli is needed for them to function as reinforcers; unconditioned reinforcers are sometimes called primary reinforcers.
Conditioned Reinforcers
Conditioned Reinforcers: a stimulus that was once neutral but established as a reinforcer by being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer; also referred to as secondary reinforcers.
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers: a conditioned reinforcer that is being paired with a wide variety of other reinforcers
Continuous reinforcement schedule
Continuous reinforcement schedule: each occurrence of a behavior is reinforced (CRF schedule)
Intermittent reinforcement schedule
Intermittent reinforcement schedule:responses are occasionally or intermittently reinforced.
Fixed Ratio (FR) schedule
Fixed Ratio (FR) schedule: the delivery of the reinforcer is based on the number of responses that occur.
Variable Ratio (VR) schedule
Variable Ratio (VR) schedule: the number of responses needed for reinforcement varies each time, around an average number
Fixed Interval (FI) schedule
Fixed Interval (FI) schedule: the delivery of the reinforcer is based on an interval of time that has passed. In this case the interval of time is fixed.
Variable Interval (VI) schedule
Variable Interval (VI) schedule:reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs after a variable interval of time has passed.