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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes up Nissil bodies?
Granular endoplasmic recticulum and ribosomes
Where are granule cells found? What do they look like?
1. Cerebellum
2. No visible cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei
What is responsible for the mahogany color of the lateral geniculate body?
What is responsible for the mahogany color of the substantia nigra and the locus ceruleus?
What percentage of neurons does a patient have to lose in order for it be seen using H&E staining?
50% to 67%
What are astrocytes in white matter called?
Fibrous astrocytes
What are astrocytes in gray matter called?
Protoplasmic astrocytes
Can you see the cytoplasm of a normal astrocyte under H&E staining?
No you need special stain or immunohistochemical staining to see the cytoplasm
What are the special intermediate fibers found in astrocytes called?
Glial fibrillary acidic proteins
What are oligodendrocytes derived from?
O-2A progenitor cells
What type of cells line the ventricles and serves as a barrier between brain parenchyma and CSF?
Ependymal cells
What three things form the BBB?
1. Ependymal cells
2. CSF
3. Astrocytes
What is the morphology of ependymal cells?
Single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells with cilia
What type of cells transform into macrophages in the brain?
Microglial cells
What type of cells can do minor amounts of phagocytosis?
What site often catches the seeds of hematogenously spreading infections and also is a common site for tumor growth?
Choroid plexus
What happens to the choroid plexus with age?
What is the first thing to happen to a hypoxic neuron? What usually happens next? How are these dead neurons usually described?
1. It shrinks
2. Becomes eosinophillic
3. Red and Dead
Are cerebellar neurons resistant to hypoxia?
No, they succumb very fast
Where do you find Bergmann astrocytes?
Must get oxygen to someone who has suffered cardiac arrest after a max of how long?
3 minutes
First brain cells to die from anoxia?

First: Purkinje & Telencephalon cells

Last: Brainstem, Thalamic & spinal cord neurons
This disease is a cause of frontotemporal demetia
Pick's disease
What are the changes associated with axonal injury called? What is seen within this neuron?
1. Chromatolysis

2. Marginated Nissl substance
What problems do neurofibrillary tangles cause?
They stop neurological impulses from travelling.
Lafora disease is a very uncommon type of what disease?
Myoclonic epilepsy
Where are Lewy bodies usually seen? Disease it's associated with?
Substantia nigra

What is a morphological change seen in reactive astrocytes? What is another name for reactive astrocytes?
1. Cytoplasmic swelling

2. Gemistocytes
In what situations would you see Alzheimer II cells?

Where do you usually see them?
1. Hepatic failure
2. Hyperammonemia

3. Basal ganglia
What is a sign of aging seen in astrocytic processes? Who do you see these in?
1. Corpora amylacae
2. Older people and people with chronic Sz
Cytomegalovirus produes what inside neuronal nuclei?
Cowdry type A bodies
What does not happen when ependymal cells die. What diseases can cause glandular ependymitis?
1. They are not replaced

2. Syphillis or TB
What is the hallmark pathological sign of a ependymal tumor?
Perivascular pseudorosette
How many CCs of CSF are replaced every hour?
How many CCs of CSF do adults have?
Degeneration of enttire arboization of a neuron, dendrites, axon and axonal branches, inevitably following the necxrosis of the neuronal cell body an its nucleus is called?

More commin in which nervous system?
Wallerian degeneration

Peripheral NS
Functions of CSF (4)?
1) Physical support

2) Transport

3) Excretion

4) Biochemistry
Position of the patient when doing spinal tap (ALWAYS!)
Normal adult CSF cell count?
0-6 mononuclear cells/mm3
Normal adult CSF protein?
Normal adult CSF glucose?
Normal neonate CSF cell count?
8-9 mononuclear cells/mm3
Normal neonate CSF protein?
Normal neonate CSF glucose?