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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
[syllabic]
[+syl]: Forms the nucleus of a syllable. Only vowels are underlyingly [+syl].
--> Includes: vowels, syllabic consonants.

[-syl]: Does not form the nucleus of a syllable. This feature differentiates vowels and glides with the same place and manner of articulation. ([u]/[w] and [i]/[j])
--> Includes: glides, non-syllablic consonants
[sonorant]
[+son]: Pressure inside and outside the mouth is roughly equal, and the vocal folds will tend to vibrate. By default, these sounds are [+voice].
--> Includes: vowels, glides, liquids, nasals

[-son]: Pressure inside mouth significantly greater than ambient air. By default, these sounds are [-voice].
--> Includes: stops, fricatives, affricates
[consonantal]
[+cons]: Produced with a sustained vocal tract restriction at least to the degree required for fricatives.
--> Includes: obstruents, nasals, liquids

[-cons]: Sounds produced without the above-described constriction.
--> Includes: vowels, glides
Major Class Features
[syllabic] [syl]

[sonorant] [son]

[consonantal] [cons]
Vowels
[+syl
+son
-cons]
Glides
[-syl
+son
-cons]
Liquids
[-syl
+son
+cons
-nas]
Nasals
[-syl
+son
+cons
+nas]
Liquids and Nasals (Major class)
[-syl
+son
+cons]
Obstruents
[-syl
-son
+cons]
Place of Articulation Features
[labial] [lab]
--> [round] [rnd]

[coronal]
--> [anterior] [ant]
--> [distributed] [distr]

[dorsal] [dors]

[high]

[back]

[low]

[guttural]
--> [retracted tongue root] [RTR]
--> [radical]
--> [laryngeal]

[advanced tongue root] [ATR]
--> [tense] [tns]
[labial]
[+lab]: Formed with a constriction at the lips.
--> Includes: labial consonants, round vowels

[-lab]: Formed without a constriction at the lips.
--> Includes: everything else
[round]
Sub-feature of [labial]

Produced with lips rounded and/or protruded.

[+rnd] on a consonant creates a secondary articulation.
[coronal]
[+cor]: Produced by raising the tongue blade toward the teeth or hard palate.
--> Includes: Dentals, alveolars, palato-alveolars, palatals, retroflex consonants.

[-cor]: Tongue does not move toward teeth or hard palate.
--> Includes: Labials, velars, uvulars, pharyngeals.
[anterior]
Sub-feature of [coronal]. Any +/- value for [ant] implies [+cor]

[+ant]: Primary constriction at or in front of the alveolar ridge.
--> Includes: Dentals, alveolars.

[-ant]: Primary constriction behind the alveolar ridge.
--> Includes: Palato-alveolars, palatals, retroflex consonants
[distributed]
Sub-feature of [coronal]. Any +/- value for [distr] implies [+cor].

[+distr]: Constriction that extends for a considerable distance along the direction of airflow (mid-saggital axis of the oral tract). Sounds made with blade or front of tongue.
--> Includes: Interdentals, palato-alveolars, palatals.

[-distr]: Produced with a constriction that only extends a short distance in the direction of airflow. Sounds made with the tip of the tongue.
--> Includes: Alveolars, retroflex sounds
[dorsal]
[+dors]: Constriction formed with back of tongue raised or retracted to velum or uvula.
--> Includes: Velars, uvulars.

[-dors]: No such constriction.
--> Includes: everything except velars, uvulars.
[high]
[+high]: Body of tongue raises toward palate.
--> Includes: Palatals, velars, palatalized consonants, velarized consonants, high vowels, high glides.

[-high]: Body of tongue does not raise toward palate.
--> Includes: Everything not enumerated above.
[back]
[+back]: Tongue body relatively retracted from reference point.
--> Includes: Velars, uvulars, pharyngeals, velarized consonants, pharyngealized consonants, central vowels and glides, back vowels and glides.

[-back]: Palatalized sounds, everything else not enumerated as [+back]
[low]
[+low]: Body of tongue drawn down from roof of mouth.
--> Includes: Low vowels (ӕ, ɑ), pharyngeal consonants, pharyngealized consonants.

[-low]: Everything else