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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 cochlear ducts and what type of fluid is contained within each?
Scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph; scala media contains endolymph
What are the characteristics of the basilar membrane at the basilar end?
Narrow, stiff, and under tension (high frequencies)
What are the characteristics of the basilar membrane at the apical end?
wide, flaccid, under no tension (low frequencies)
Where is the endocochlear potential (EP) measured and what is the likely source?
EP is measured in the scala media; the source is likely the stria vascularis
Is the cochlear microphonic (CM) a resting or a stimulus-related potential? Where is its source?
CM is a stimulus-related ptoential; source is the cilia end of the hair cells
What is the best stimulus and best location to measure the action potential (AP)?
Click or tone burst has quick onset to maximize neural synchrony; best location is at the basal end (high frequencies)
Which auditory nerve fibers send signals to the brain??
Afferent fibers
At what location along the cochlear nerve does the neural information become a spike?
habenula perforata
What is the refractory period of a neuron? How long is it?
The period during which a stimulus is not effective; lasts about 1 msec
Describe what the spontaneous activity of a nerve means?
It is the neural activity that occurs in the absence of a stimulus
What is the range of discharge rates for auditory nerves in spontaneous activity?
ranges from a few spikes per minute to 100 spikes per second
Define neural threshold
Stimulus level that will cause an increase in discharge rate above its spontaneous discharge rate
Which type of nerve has the lowest neural thresholds in terms of level of spontaneous activity?
Neurons with highest spontaneous activity have lowest neural thresholds
Define the characteristic frequency of a neuron
Frequency where the neuron discharges most rapidly
What is the neuronal dynamic range?
20-50 dB, which is the difference between threshold and saturation
Explain tonotopic organization of the central nuclei
Where neural spatial representation of frequency is maintained through central auditory nuclei
Which nuclei is the first place to receive input from both cochleas?
Superior olivary ocmplex (SOC)
What are the 5 major nuclei of the brainstem in ascending order?
(CSLIM) cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body
What 2 types of fibers make up the tympanic membrane?
concentric and radial
How many IHCs and OHCs?
3500 IHCs and 12,000 OHCs
What is produced along the basilar membrane when there is movement of the footplate of the stapes?
a traveling wave
What potential is measured with electrocochleography?
action potential (AP)
The unmyelinated portion of the auditory nerve extends from the base of the hair cells to what location?
habenula perforata
What anatomic location is the origin of Wave III on the ABR?
cochlear nucleus
What location is the origin of wave IV on the ABR?
superior olivary complex (SOC)
What location is the origin of wave V on the ABR?
inferior colliculus
What term describes localization, speech understanding in noise, binaural summation, and acoustic quality?
binaural processing
What psychoacoustic procedures try to determine the smallest change in a signal?
scaling procedures in which the subject is asked to rate the signal in some manner
What psychoaoustical method is it when a subject is asked to press a button when they hear the tone as the loudness is increased?
method of limits (ascending approach)
What psychoacoustical method is used when a subject is asked to press a button when they hear a sound and release it when the sound disappears (zig-zag pattern)?
method of adjustment
Which psychoacoustic method allows for a psychometric function to be plotted?
method of constant stimuli
What 2 responses are possible when the signal is off for the Theory of Signal Detection?
false alarm, correct rejection; other 2 response are hit or misses (signal is on)
When is masking noise most effective?
concentrated over narrow band at the signal frequency
What 2 aural phenomena occur when tones are close together?
Beating and aural nonlinearity
What does MAF stand for?
minimal audible field
What type of coupler would be used to measure volume for headphones?
6 cc coupler
What is temporal integration?
The rate at which the ear can add up loudness over time
What is the temporal integration time for tones?
300 ms
What are 4 reasons identified for the "missing 6 dB" noted between MAF and MAP?
head diffraction, outer ear resonance, calibration procedure, occlusion
Define sensitivity
The capability of indicating small changes or differences in a signal
What are the test conditions needed to determine the minimal audible field (MAF)?
tones, free field, loudspeaker, binaural hearing, 0 degree azimuth of signal, 1-meter distance
Which 2 conditions can the human ear detect phase?
At 2 different frequencies and at same frequency presented to both ears