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47 Cards in this Set

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is related to the distance that the sound-producing body (the vibrator) moves during vibration. The greater the distance from the point of rest, the greater the _______.
Amplitude
the excursion distance at any point in time
instantaneous amplitude
greatest point of displacement
peak amplitude
statistical average of all amplitudes at all times
RMS (root-mean-square) amplitude
vibration that is not repeatable over time. Sounds produced by this are generally classified as noise
aperiodic vibration
an instrument for measuring hearing thresholds. Hearing measurements are typically obtained for both pure tone and speech signals. The stimuli produced are presented to the listener through a pair of earphones, a bone conduction vibrator, or loudspeaker. The level of the stimulus is controlled by the examiner until a threshold level is obtained. The results are plotted on an audiogram.
audiometer
the frequency difference between the lower and upper noise band limits. More generally, however, the ______ of any device or system is the range of frequencies within which the performance of the device or system remains above a specified level.
bandwith
a periodic sound wave that consists of a fundamental frequency combined with other sine wave components at different frequencies
complex tone
occurs when the air particles are pushed together; this condition increases the resting air pressure
compression
the property of a medium or a body that enables it to return to its original shape after it has been deformed; may be considered a restoring force; the greater the _______ the more resistant the medium or body to deformation
elasticity
the number of complete cycles that a periodically vibrating source passes through in a 1-second time period; is expressed in Hz
frequency
the lowest frequency component in a complex tone
fundamental frequency
pure tone components of a complex tone that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency
harmonics
a complex sound wave that consists of a fundamental frequency together with other pure tone components at integral multiples of the fundamental
harmonic series
the unit of measurement for frequency; named in honor of an important German physicist- Heinrich ______. It is synonymous with the formerly used expression cycles per second (cps)
Hertz
The ability of a body to continue doing what it has been doing; If the body is at rest, it will tend to remain at rest. If the body is in motion, it will tend to remain in motion
inertia
the condition in which two waveforms of the same frequency coincide exactly in their phas angles (phase difference). That is, both waves correspond exactly in their minimums and maximums at the same instants in time
in phase
the amplitude of a vibratin source at any instant in time
instantaneous amplitude
the amount of acoustic energy that passes through a unit of area in a given time span. May be measured in units of power or pressure directly, but more frequently it is measured in decibels, which are logarithmic ratios
intensity
noise that is restricted in its frequency range. The spectrum is continuous (no gaps), and the frequency components are all of equal amplitudes. Like white noise, there is no regard to phase of the pure tone components
narrowband
any undesired sound
noise
those frequencies below or above which there is no apprecialbe noise energy. In practice, the band limit frequency is often taken as the point where the energy content is 3 dB below the average energy in the pass band
noise band limits
the maximum instantaneous displacement of a vibrating source from its point of rest
peak amplitude
the amplitude of a vibrating source, measured from the maximum positive peak to the maximum negative peak
peak-to-peak amplitude
the time it takes to complete one cycle of vibration. is defined as 1/f, where f is the frequency of vibration. The ______ of a 1000 Hz tone is then 1/1000 or one one-thousandth of a second
period
vibration that repeats itself regularly over time; both pure tones and complex tones are examples of this
periodic vibration
that portion of a cycle (Hz) which has elapsed at a given instant in time, relative to some arbitrary starting point. Because of the relation between simple harmonic motion (SHM) and projected circular motion, the phase angle may vary between 0 degrees and 360 degrees
phase angle
the difference inphase angles between two periodic waveforms at any instant in time; relative to some arbitrary starting point. For example, if two 1000-Hz tones are started one-fourth cycle apart, their _____ __________ will be 90 degrees
phase difference
the condition in which two waveforms of the same frequency are exactly one-half of a cycle (180 degrees) out of ophase. That is, when one wave is at its maximum value, the other is, at teh same instant, at its minimum value. Thus, the two waveforms always assume opposite but equal positions relative to the baseline
phase opposition
a sound with a definite tonal quality. The waveform of the vibrating body that produces this is a sine wave. The frequency of this represents the completed number of cycles the vibrating source passes through in a 1-sec time period
pure tone
occurs when air particles are separated. this condition results in a decrease in the resting air pressure
rarefaction
represents the effective amplitude of the source. mathematically, this is equal to the square root of the mean of all the squared instantaneous amplitudes. For the case of a sine wave, this equals .707 times the peak amplitude
root-mean-square
a symmetrical to and fro motion of a body over a rest position. When the amplitudes of the body are plotted as a function of time, the resulting pattern is a sine wave. Pure tones are produced by this
simple harmonic motion
an instrument that measures sound levels in decibels with a specific reference of .0002 dyne per cm squared; it consists of a microphone, amplifier, output meter or digital display, adn several frequency-weighting networks. The purpose of the networks is to simulate the response characteristics of hte normal human ear
sound level meter
a plot showing the frequencies and amplitudes of the individual components of the wave. It is also used to denote a range of frequencies that possess a common characteristic, such as the audio-frequency spectrum
spectrum
a spectrum in which the energy in the wave is at only one or more discrete frequencies (a pure or a complex tone)
line spectrum
a spectrum in which there is a continuous and unbroken band of frequencies
continuous spectrum
the character of a musical tone that distinguishes one musical instrument from another; it depends upon the relative intensities of the harmonic frequencies produced by each instrument
timbre
a plot that shows the instantaneous amplitudes of the signal over time
waveform
consists of a continuous spectrum across the auditory range. Although the amplitudes of all the frequency components that comprise the noise are equal, there is no regard to the phases of the frequency components
white noise
the distance in space between two corresponding points (phases) in two consecutive cycles in a periodic sound wave; it is related to the velocity of sound and frequency by the formula "wavelength = velocity/frequency"
wavelength
graphic representation of a signal
sine wave
process whereby friction causes sound to weaken and eventually stop vibrating in a medium
damping
more than 1 wave together
complex wave
unit value used to measure sound
dyne
logarhythmic scale used to measure sound
decibel
amount of intensity at an individual frequency
audiometric zero