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46 Cards in this Set

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HUMAN language system which is both EFFICIENT and FLEXIBLE. Allows for sending/receiving of messages which ahve never been seen before
Open Communication System
NONHUMAN, animal-based language system which implements the call system to convey meaning. (limited number of sounds taht are produced in response to specific stimuli) Characteristics on next slide...
Closed Communication System. Characteristics: calls cannot be combined to produce new sounds. Calls are reflexive in that they are automatic responses to specific stimuli
Are some languages superior to others?
NO! ALL world languages are capable of conveying meaning in an equal manner although some cultures tend to stress different areas of linguistic focus.
Minimal linguistic form (usually a word) with meaning; the smallest part of an utterance that has a definite meaning
Smallest sound contrast that serves to distinguish meaning; units of sound that lack meaning in themselves; they are the smallest sound contrasts that distinguish meaning
capacity to convey information about a thing that is not acpresent; the ability to send or receive a message without direct sensory conditions or events to which the message refers
How many spoken languages are there in the world today?
Between 5-6,000 spoken world languages
How do we distinguish between two languages
Mutual Comprehensibility and historical linguistics
Mutual Comprehensibility
Whether or not people can understand eachother. If they can, they speak the same language. If not the speak different languages.
Historical Linguistics
Branch of anthropological linguistics which attempts to find out how languages are related and how they came to merge together/break apart from one another
Do the number of sounds used by a particular language influence its ability to convey complex thoughts?
NO! ALL world languages are equally able to convey complex thoughts. The number of phonemes found in a language does not bear any impact on that language's ability to convey complex thoughts
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Different languages impact the way you think, perceive, and experience reality and time in the world around you.
Which came first, pastoralism or farming?
Pastoralism and farming emerged and spread TOGETHER in the Old world as INTERRELATED parts of a pattern of increasing human intervention in nature.
Why did our foraging forebears give up their way of life and settle down as farmers?
1. Farming creates a high energy system with food SURPLUS
2. Allows for the existence of a larger population (increases the carrying capacity from 1/3)
3. Allows for populations to live CLOSER to eachother
Negatives of farming
1. Rise of formal government
2. Lack of self-governing yourself
3. Longer work hours
4. less varied diets
5. increase of infections
6. environmental damage
Why did human populations increase after people setteled down as farmers?
Farming allowed for a greater surplise of food to be produced, allowing for population size to expand and the carrying capacity of society to thusly be increased.
What mechanisms kept a check on population growth before farming?
Prolonged lactation: women continued to breastfedd children up to 4 years after birth to avoid consequent pregnancy to avoid population inrease
Horticulture(slash-burn farming)
Not based on intensive use of resources, land, labor or capital. Requires lots of fallow land. Land is cleared by cutting down the forest, allowing it to dry and then burning it so that it may later be used for farming purposed. The ash from the fires provides pesticide-free fertilizer for growing crops
Intensive agriculture
modern form of cultivation that IS based on intensive use of resrouces, land, labor, and capital. Land is used INTENSELY and EXTENSIVELY through the use of animal labo and irrigation.
Consequences of intensive agriculture
1. destruction of finite natural environment
2. political subordination
3. differntail access to strategic rerouces
4. increaseing rates of infection/disease
5. longer working hours
6. less varied diets
7. Higher surplus causes the surplus going to STATE as a form of tax. Used to support people who are not direct producers.
Increase in labor output to produce greater yields without expanding the amount of land used
Where is pastoralism found
Found in arid areas of the OLD world (North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, Europe, and Asia) where agricultural production is not possible. Pastoralists use animals to convert useless vegetation into things they can use (blood, meat, milik, yogurt, butter, cheese)
Type of pastoralism in which the ENTIRE group and animal herd moves together YEARLY. Must trade with farmers for food. Ex: bassiri of Iran
Nomadic Pastoralism
Type of pastoralism in which animal husbandry AND farming are present and only PART of the group moves with the herd while the rest remain at the village to raise the crops
Transhumant pastoralism
What animals did Old world Pastoralists rely upon?
Cattle and sheep. New world relied on llamas and alpacas
3 benefits of herding
1. allows use of grasslands, savannas, tundra, where plants are indigesti ble by people.
2. Subsistence risk reduciton: animals serve as a trade leverage (insurance) to buy crops elseware in times of drought
3. mobility: livestock can be moved ot areas of fresh pastures, sources of water, away from aggressive neigbors, and out of reach of tax hungry governments who want to have nomads settle down
3 limitations of herding
1. environmental constraints: cannot raise livestock in tropical forests that lack forage.
2. Livestock disease
3. In areas where cultivation can be carried out, agriculture is MORE PRODUCTIVE than pastoralism per unit of land.
Ten-percent rule
As you go up the food chain, only 10% of energy from the pervious level is avaiable for energy in the next.
Type of arrangement found in hunter-gatherer bands in which society members are related to one another through marriage or circumstance and are treated as stand-in-kin (family) although they may be from neighboring Hunter-gatherer bands and not of direct blood relation
Fictive kinship
Set of institutionalized activities which combine natural resources, human labor, and technology to acquire, produce and distribute materal goods and specialized services in a STRUCTURED and REPETITIVE fashion
type of exchange eocnomy found in hunter-gathering socities and other pre-agricultural societies in which goods are exchanged on an informal basis without keeping track of what is given to whom and/or who oews what to whom.
In what sort of relationships is reciprocity embedded
Found in hunter-gatherer bands and is imbedded within the context of family/kinship based relationships. All members are considered part of an egalitarian society so all goods consumed and resources used are considered to be equal property of all in the community
Non-kin based trading system: members of different bands or villages regard eachother as metaphorical kin with whom they trade exclusively
Silent Trade
Hunter-gatherer/pre-agricultural societies: want to buy something illegal which is banned but you need to know you won't get in trouble. Leave stuff in a spot and the other group takes goods. No face-to-face communication
The Kula and its economic and social functions
The Kula (Trade partnership) : Trobriand Islanders exchange shell neckalces in a circular fashion. Value of necklace based on time in circulation and previous ownership.
accumulate of large amounts of labor products produced by different individuals in a central place, where they are sorted and counted and then given away to producers and non-producers alike.
Two types of redistribution:
1. Egalitarian redistribution: redistributor lacks the power to coerce followers into intensifying production and must depend on goodwill.
2. stratified redistribution: redistributor has the power to coerce and workers depend on his good will. Based on POLITICAL CONTROL. Invovles a class of RULERS who have the POWER to compel others to do their bidding.
How does redistribution generate prestige?
Allows certain populations access to large sums of money and resources while simultaneously denying others access to that same material wealth.
How does redistribution reflect adjustment to particular technological and ecological factors
it allows for the control of power in society. Government decides which groups will thrive and which will plunder.
System of economic exchange in which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods and services WITHOUT using a medium of exchange such as money.
Barter Market
Why is the Barter Market limited
almost all modern societies today use currency to exchange goods/services and those that still partake in a barter market economy often are not modern, market type economies.
Characteristics of price markets
1. Large populations
2. Informal transactions
3. currency driven (all transactions for goods/services are quantifiable)
How does one gain prestige in 21st century U.S
Attaining a high level of value in the market economy
Term for production and exchange because economic relationships entail power relations enforced by sales coercive arm
Political economy
Price-market exchange
market where goods are bought and sold with money, distributed, minted and printed by the state
What does it mean when we say that capitalism is a kind of economy where money can buy anything?
All goods and services are quantified into a dollars and cents amount whihc places a certain level of monetary value on everything that is able to be consumed