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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
educational psychology, conducted reaserch using cats in boxes where the cat culd only escape by stepping on lever
law of effect
that a behavior followed by a satisfying state of affairs is strengthened and a behavior followed by and anoying state of affairs is weakened
operant conditioing
the preocess by which behaviors are instrumental in producing certain consequenses, also called instrumental conditioning
behavioral contingencies
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment
Positive reinfocement
a behavior that is followed by the presentation of a desireable stimulus becomes more likely to occure in the future (ex. rum and praying)
Premack Principle
A behavior that has a higher probability of occurrence can be used as a positive reinforcer for a behavior that has a lower probability
primary reinforcer
is biological and unlearned, such as oxygen, food, water, warmth, and sleep
secondary reinforcer
is learned and becomes reinforcing by being associated with a primary reinforcer (chimps and tokens)
method of secessive approximations (used in animal training ie dolphins and hoops or in overcomming fear of flying).
schedule of reinforcementq
the pattern of reinforcements given for a desired behavior
contimuus schedule of reinforcement
every instance of a desired behavior is reinforced
partial schedules od reinforcement
reinforcement is only given for some instnaces of desired behavior (more resistant to extinction)
discovered partial schedules by acccient when he ran short of food pellets
ratio reinforcement
reinforcement is provided after the individual makes a cetain number of desired responses. there is fixed and variale
fixed interval schedule
reinfoeces the first desired response after a set period of time (can also be variable)
negative reinforcement
a behavior that brings about the removal of an aversive stimulus becomes more likley to occure in the future, increases the likleyhood of a behavior
escape learning
learning to end something agressive
avoidance learning
learning to prevent something aversive
behaviors learned through operant conditioing are subject to extinction in whih the reduction in probibility of a behavior that is no longer being reinforced
the consequense of a behavior decreases its likely hood, negative reinforcement becuase it involves the removal of an agressive stimulus (ex speeding ticket)