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58 Cards in this Set

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developed as a place to bury the dead separate from the pagans – a vast underground network of halls and galleries carved out of the soft Tufa
the long central hall that held the congregation
side aisles
found on either side of the nave, provided walkways around the nave
the area that crossed the nave and formed a symbolic cross shape
the semicircular area on the opposite side of the trancept that held the alter
an entrance to the nave that gave the visitor a chance to make a shift from the material world outside to the spiritual world inside the church
a ringlike barrel-vaulted corridor separated from the central domed cylinder by a dozen pairs of columns
bound like a modern book and was made possible through new development in paper, such as vellum (calfskin) and parchment (lambskin)
byzantine art
hagia sophia, justinian & attendants
early christian art
ceiling from catacomb of st. peter, good shepherd sarcophagus, christ as the good shepherd
solved the problem of placing a round dome on a square structure by taking the weight off the walls and channeling it onto massive piers
the destruction of images – the destroyers of images were known as iconoclasts – those who opposed such a ban were known as iconophiles or
migration art
animal head, ornamental page, purse cover
a social, political, and economic system that dominated medieval Europe –society was divided into three groups, the lord, the clergy, and the serfs
decorative pins used to fasten garments together – these were made of a metal working process called cloisonne
used metal strips to form a basic geometric pattern – the spaces between these strips were filled with stone or melted glazes, leaving edge of strips showing at top and the colored stones or glazes between them
(found on the purse cover) a complex pattern of woven lines, in this case created with the metal strips of cloisonne
terrorized the coastal areas of western Europe – they attached, plundered, and colonized many of the coastal areas – they often used fear as a tactic for making it easier to take control of these areas – most Viking art was done in the form of
wood carving, made for ships
illuminated manuscript
hand copied manuscripts decorated with drawings – they were said to be illuminated due to the use of gold leaf in the paint that caused it to glow in the sunlight
carolingian art
st. matthew, st. matthew
ottonian art
st. michaels, adam and eve reproached by the lord
romanesque art
st. sernin, nave of st. sernin, durham cathedral, pisa cathedral group, west tympanum of st. lazare, bayeux tapestry, st. george and the dragon
Christian travels to sacred shrines where the relics of saints were kept – they believed that pilgrimages would heal the body and guarantee salvation for the soul – this was also a public way of showing devotion
radiating chapels
small chapels often used to house relics or give pilgrims a place to worship without disturbing the service already in progress
alternating support system
where there are alternating heavy and light columns
the space reserved for the clergy and singers in the church, usually east of the transept but, in some instances, extending into the nave
a bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding
the space enclosed by a lintel and an arch over a doorway
in church architecture, the pillar or center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the doorway
gothic art
royal portals of chartres cathedral, notre dame, west facade, the visitation, st. chapelle, salisbury cathedral
flying buttress
an exterior support that channels the weight of the stone vaults outward
and downward relieving the wall of their supporting function - act as an exterior skeleton to support the vaults – opened the way for the development of stained glass windows
rayonnant style
meaning the radiant style – highly decorative and takes Gothic technology to the extreme
flamboyant style
named for the flame like appearance of its highly pointed arches decoration was taken to the extreme to the point that sculptural ornamentation dominates the structure
ornamental stonework for holding stained glass in place, characteristic of Gothic cathedrals
the fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts
stained glass
the colored glass used for windows
the “old” Stone Age, during which humankind produced the first sculptures and paintings, paintings found mostly on the walls of caves
the “middle” Stone Age, between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic ages, we start to see lots of human depicted both singly and in groups, paintings are more narrative, but still depict man as simplified stick figures
an agricultural society who had an early writing system called the cuniform - religion played an important role in Sumerian life, so did the pattern of war and peace
a peaceful, cultured people who succeeded in unifying Mesopotamia – Hammurabi was their most famous leader
a warlike, cruel people who conquered the Babylonians – fearful of attack, they built walled fortresses around their palaces – gates of their palaces were guarded by lamassu – carved low relief sculptures on the outside of the palace wall
originated as a nomadic people on the high plateau of Iran – their early art was portable and in the form of fantasy animals and animal objects – because they were nomads, they built no permanent architecture – they are known as the “great copiers” of art history
religion and permanence characterize the Egyptian culture – their art expresses this continuity – much of the art relates to the climate, but the primary subject of their art revolves around their belief that the spirit lives on after the body dies and that they must provide everything a man had in life for him in the afterworld
known for their development of the pottery wheel – early Minoan pots were simple, decorated with abstract shapes that often came from the sea, such as spirals - not fearful of attack, so rather than building tombs, temples, or forts, they built monumental palaces
fearful of attack and built great fortresses – in addition to their fortifications, they were also known for their tombs
greek - geometric
Greek vase painting becomes very geometric in design and shows influences of Mesopotamian and Egyptian art – the first human form appears in Greek art
greek - archaic
“golden age” of Greek vase painting - began to experiment with the human form – vase painting was at its height, sculpture and architecture are being developed
greek - classical
the height of Greek sculpture, created a much more lifelike human figure – sculpture and architecture were at their height of achievement – went beyond just realism and strove for perfection in their human sculptures – demonstrated a thorough understanding of how the body moves
greek - hellenistic
this was a very diverse period – they lost the idealism of the classical age, but gained realism – a new sense of realism as human flaws and strong emotion began to appear in sculpture – they showed real humanity, not just perfect specimens
people of an unknown origin – built fortified hilltop cities – skilled sea farers, although they had a reputation of being pirates – gesturing hands were common for this culture
used art and architecture as a means to illustrate the power and achievements of the government – it was political propaganda to reach people living many miles from Rome – much of their culture still survives today
early christian
– two distinct periods in this art, the period of persecution and the period of recognition – art during the period of persecution was Roman in style and Christian in subject – the period of recognition created a need for public places of worship – early churches were based on Roman architectural styles, but were adapted and modified to fit Christian needs
– figures are dramatically elongated and have lost the three dimensional aspects of Roman influenced mosaics – they are essentially flat – flattening of space is characteristic of Byzantine art – Byzantine artists used special characteristics for symbolic means
– most of the art was done on small scale and took the form of decorative objects that had some functional value – the subjects were either geometric patterns or abstract animal imagery
art and learning began to flourish – manuscript illumination was a prevalent form of art - architecture experienced a revival
short lived but produced St. Michaels which used an alternating support system and also reintroduced large scale sculpture with its cast bronze doors
– not descriptive of one are or group of people – the style had regional variations, but maintained similar characteristics – two practices were instrumental in shaping these times: monasticism and pilgrimages
attitudes toward humanity and man’s role in the universe had become much more positive – this change in attitude can be seen in the architecture, the sculpture, and the manuscripts of this period