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422 Cards in this Set

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What is the Chain of Command?
The correct order a command follows when issued by a superior to a subordinate.
What is an NCO?
A Leader
What is a sergeant's job?
To train and lead soldiers
The Chain of Command is reinforced by what channel of communication?
The NCO support channel
On what date was the NCO support channel formally recognized?
20 December, 1976
Give two examples when the Chain of Command may be jumped or even bypassed.
Valid Inspector General (IG) complaints about the immediate chain of command, and when there is an equal opportunity problem within the immediate chain of command.
Is the sergeant major in your Chain of Command?
No, He or she is in the NCO support channel.
Is the company commander part of your NCO Support Channel?
No, The C.O. is part of the Chain of Command.
Who is at the top of the NCO Support Channel?
The Sergeant Major of the Army
FM 1
The Army
What is the Chain of Command?
The correct order a command follows when issued by a superior to a subordinate.
What is an NCO?
A Leader
What is a sergeant's job?
To train and lead soldiers
The Chain of Command is reinforced by what channel of communication?
The NCO support channel
On what date was the NCO support channel formally recognized?
20 December, 1976
Give two examples when the Chain of Command may be jumped or even bypassed.
Valid Inspector General (IG) complaints about the immediate chain of command, and when there is an equal opportunity problem within the immediate chain of command.
Is the sergeant major in your Chain of Command?
No, He or she is in the NCO support channel.
Is the company commander part of your NCO Support Channel?
No, The C.O. is part of the Chain of Command.
Who is at the top of the NCO Support Channel?
The Sergeant Major of the Army
What is the FM for the Army?
FM 1
What is the FM for NBC?
FM 3-7 and the entire 3-11x series.
What is the FM for Field Sanitation?
FM 21-10
What is the FM for Survival?
FM 3-05.70
What is the FM for Map Reading and Land Navigation?
FM 3-25.26
What is the FM for Drill and Ceremony?
FM 3-21.5
What is the FM for Guard Duty?
FM 22-6
What is the FM for Army Leadership?
FM 22-100
What is the FM for Rifle Marksmanship?
FM 3-22.9
What is the FM for Crew Served Machine Guns?
FM 3-22.68
What is the FM for Combat Training with Pistols?
FM 3-23.35
What is the AR for Military Justice?
AR 27-10
What is the AR for SAEDA? (Subversion and Espionage Directed against the U.S. Army)
AR 381-12
What is the AR for Weight Control?
AR 600-9
What is the AR for the Army Substance Abuse Program? (ASAP)
AR 600-85
What is the AR for Equal Opportunity?
AR 600-20
What is the AR for Enlisted Promotions and Reductions?
AR 600-8-19
What is the AR for Uniform Wear?
AR 670-1
What is the AR for Awards and Decorations?
AR 600-8-22
What is the AR for Flags?
AR 840-10
What is the AR for Conscientious Objection?
AR 600-43
What is the AR for Enlisted Promotions?
AR 600-8-19
What DA PAM covers NCO Professional Development?
DA PAM 600-25
What Army manual covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
What is first aid?
The first care given to injured soldiers before medical personnel are available.
What are the four life saving steps of first aid?
1. Clear the airway and restore breathing.
2. Stop the bleeding.
3. Treat and dress the wounds to prevent infection.
4. Prevent Shock.
What are the three types of bleeding and how are they recognized?
Arterial: Blood is bright red and spurts with the heartbeat.
Venous: Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream.
Capillary: Blood oozes from the wound.
How do you stop the bleeding?
1. Apply a field dressing
2. Apply manual pressure.
3. Elevate the injured limb.
4. Apply a pressure dressing.
5. Apply a tourniquet.
Whose first aid dressing should be used on the casualty?
Use the casualty's bandage.
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed to stop the bleeding, or when an arm or leg has been cut off.
What are the four types of burns?
Thermal, electrical, chemical and laser.
What is the single most common cause of airway blockage?
The tongue
Where is the tourniquet applied?
Around a limb, between the injury and the heart, two to four inches above the wound. And never place a tourniquet directly on a joint.
How tight should a tourniquet be?
Until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
What must be done to indicate a casualty has a tourniquet?
Mark the casualty's forehead with a "T" and note the time of application.
When should you loosen or remove a tourniquet?
You should never loosen or remove a tourniquet.
Define manual pressure.
Firm pressure on the dressing for five to 10 minutes.
What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
What should be applied if bleeding continues after applying a field dressing?
Apply a pressure dressing after manual pressure, and elevation of the injury.
What are two types of artificial respiration?
The mouth-to-mouth method, and the back pressure-arm lift method.
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
Casualties should not eat or drink.
What are signs of shock?
Cool, pale damp skin (clammy skin); confusion; nausea or vomiting; restlessness or nervousness; loss of blood; thirst; fast breathing; fainting spells; excessive perspiration; blotched or bluish skin-especially around the mouth or lips.
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When there is a head injury, abdominal wound or unsplinted fractured leg(s).
What is the treatment for shock?
Move to cover if possible. Lay the casualty on their back; elevate the legs; loosen clothing at the neck, waist, ankles and feet; prevent chilling or overheating; keep the casualty calm.
What is the measure for checking the tightness of bandages?
Two fingers should slip under the bandage.
What items should never be used as a tourniquet?
Wire or string?
What procedure is used to restore heartbeat?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
When it becomes necessary to give CPR what is the ratio of pumps to breaths for a one-man rescue and a two-man rescue?
One man-15 pumps/2 breaths.
Two man-5 pumps/1breath.
When may resuscitation measures be stopped?
1. When a doctor tells you to stop.
2. When you are relieved by others.
3. When you can't physically continue.
4. When the casualty starts breathing on their own.
What is the correct method of artificial respiration used during an NBC attack, and why?
The back pressure-arm lift method because during an NBC attack both of you will be masked.
When is a casualty's clothing not removed in order to expose a wound?
When the clothing is stuck to the wound, or in an NBC environment.
What is unique about type "O" blood?
It can be used by anybody.
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible?
To control the bleeding, and to protect the wound from contamination by germs.
What is a heat injury?
General Dehydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
What are the three categories of heat injuries?
Heat cramps
Heat exhaustion
Heat stroke
Describe the signs of heat cramps.
Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Describe the treatment for heat cramps.
Move the casualty into shade, loosen clothing and give cool water.
Name the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion
Pale, moist and cool, clammy skin, headache, muscle cramps, excessive sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, cramps, urge to defecate, chills, rapid breathing, confusion, tingling of the hands and/or feet.
How should heat exhaustion be treated?
Move the casualty to a cool, shaded area, loosen any tight fitting clothing have him or her drink a canteen of cool water, elevate the legs and monitor.
Describe the signs and symptoms of heat stroke.
The person stops sweating, his or her skin is dry and hot, the pulse is fast, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and mental confusion, weakness, seizures.
How should heat stroke be treated?
Immerse the casualty in the coldest water available or remove the clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
What are the two most common types of fractures?
Open (compound) and closed (simple).
What is an open fracture?
A broken bone that breaks through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobilized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and nerves/ Doing this reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous?
Shock is inadequate blood flow to the vital organs and tissues. If shock is uncorrected it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shock appear to be less than fatal.
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie.
What does the world "COLD" mean in cold weather protection?
COLD stand for keeping it Clean, avoiding Overheating, wearing Loose clothing in layers and keeping it Dry.
Name five types of cold and wet weather injuries?
Frostbite: actual freezing of a part of the body.
Hypothermia: lowering of the body temperature.
Immersion foot/trench foot: occurs between 32 and 50 degrees.
Chilblain: mild form of frostbite.
Snow blindness: pain in and around the eyes.
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite.
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body.
Sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a momentary tingling feeling.
Redness of skin in light-skinned soldiers, grayish coloring in dark skinned soldiers.
Blisters.
What are the two most common types of fractures?
Open (compound) and closed (simple).
What is an open fracture?
A broken bone that breaks through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobilized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and nerves/ Doing this reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous?
Shock is inadequate blood flow to the vital organs and tissues. If shock is uncorrected it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shock appear to be less than fatal.
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie.
What does the world "COLD" mean in cold weather protection?
COLD stand for keeping it Clean, avoiding Overheating, wearing Loose clothing in layers and keeping it Dry.
Name five types of cold and wet weather injuries?
Frostbite: actual freezing of a part of the body.
Hypothermia: lowering of the body temperature.
Immersion foot/trench foot: occurs between 32 and 50 degrees.
Chilblain: mild form of frostbite.
Snow blindness: pain in and around the eyes.
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite.
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body.
Sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a momentary tingling feeling.
Redness of skin in light-skinned soldiers, grayish coloring in dark skinned soldiers.
Blisters.
Swollen and or tender areas.
Loss of previous feeling of pain in the affected area.
Pale, yellowish waxy-looking skin.
Frozen area that feels solid or wooden to the touch.
What is the treatment for frostbite?
Warm the area at the first sign of frostbite with the casualty's or a buddy's hands, underarm or abdomen.
Face, ears or nose: Cover the area with the casualty's or buddy's hands.
Hands: Place them inside his or her clothing against the body and close the clothing.
Feet: Place the casualty's bare feet under clothing and against the body of another soldier.
Loosen or remove tight clothing and any jewelry.
Cover the casualty with a blanket or other dry material.
What precautions should be followed with frostbite?
Don't soak the frostbitten part.
Don't rub it with snow.
Don't expose it to any extreme heat source.
Don't rub or move frostbitten part in any way to increase circulation.
Don't allow the casualty to smoke or drink alcohol.
Do not treat seriously frostbitten parts if the casualty must walk or travel to receive further treatment.
What is hypothermia?
The body loses heat faster than it can produce.
What are two types of hypothermia?
Mild and severe
Describe the symptoms of hypothermia
Casualty is cold. Shivering stops, but the body temperature is low. Consciousness may be altered. Movement is uncoordinated. Shock and coma may set in as a result of lower body temperatures.
What is the treatment for hypothermia?
Immediately rewarm the body evenly with a heat source.
Keep the casualty dry, and protect from the elements.
Warm liquides may be gradually given to the casualty providing he or she is conscious.
Be prepared to start basic life support measures for the casualty.
Seek medical help immediately. Hypothermia is a medical emergency and must be treated as soon as possible.
What are the signs and symptoms of immersion foot?
Affected parts are cold, numb and painless. Then the parts may become hot, with burning and shooting pains. In the advanced stage skin is pale with a bluish tint, pulse decreases. Blistering swelling, heat, hemorrhages and gangrene may follow.
How is trench foot/immersion foot acquired?
It results from fairly long exposure of the feet to wet and cold (50 to 32 degrees Fahrenheit). Inactive feet in damp or wet socks and boots or tightly laced boots which impair circulation also cause it.
How is trench foot/immersion foot treated?
Rewarm the injury gradually by exposing it to warm air.
Do not massage it.
Do not moisten the skin.
Do not apply heat or ice.
Protect the affected area from further trauma.
Keep the injury dry. Avoid walking.
Seek medical treatment.
What are the symptoms of chilblain?
The affected areas are red, swollen, hot, tender, and itchy. Continued exposure will lead to blisters or bleeding skin lesions.
Describe the treatment for chilblain.
The affected area usually responds to locally applied rewarming with body heat. Don't rub or massage the area.
What is snow blindness?
The effect that glare from an ice field or snowfield has on the eyes.
Will snow blindness occur only when the sun is shining?
No. It can happen in cloudy weather, also.
What are the symptoms of snow blindness?
A sensation of grit or sand in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes which feels worse when the eyeball moves. Other signs include watering, redness, headache, and pain on exposure to light.
How should snow blindness be treated?
Blindfolding or covering the eyes with dark cloth which stops eye movement. Rest, protect from further exposure to light. Seek medical care.
Is snow blindness permanent?
No. The condition usually heals in a few days without permanent damage.
What is the most common condition which requires first aid assistance?
The open wound.
How would you treat a sucking chest wound?
Cover the area with plastic to stop the flow of air. Bandage the wound and lay the casualty on the wound if possible, or have the person sit up.
How much water should be given to a person with an abdominal wound?
None.
What is the best one man carry that can be used for transporting a casualty long distance?
The pistol belt carry.
Describe the three degrees of burns.
1st degree burn - reddening skin.
2nd degree burn - blistering.
3rd degree burn - charred flesh.
What is the most important thing to do in case of a serious burn?
Keep the burn clean and apply a dry sterile dressing.
If you found a casualty with a hole in his or her chest what would be the first thing to do?
Check the back for an exit wound.
What is an indication of a sucking chest wound?
Frothy fluid bursting with each breath.
Would you elevate a patient's legs if he had a head injury?
No
Should large amounts of water be given to a burn victim?
No. One quart per hour is sufficient.
What is self aid?
Emergency treatment applied by oneself.
What are the four life saving steps?
1. Clear the airway.
2. Stop the bleeding.
3. Protect the wound.
4. Treat for shock.
What is the first aid for snake bites?
Do not attempt to cut open the bite or suck the venom out of the bite. If the venom should seep through any damaged or lacerated tissues in the mouth you could immediately lose consciousness or even die.
Bite on arm or leg: place a constricting band one to two finger widths above and below the bite. Band should be tight but not cut off circulation. If there is swelling move the bands to the edges of the swelling.
Keep the injured area below the level of the heart.
Keep the casualty quiet, immobile if possible.
If possible wash the area of the bite with soap and water. Do not use any ointments.
Never give the casualty food, alcohol, coffee, tea, drugs, or tobacco.
Remove rings, watches, or other jewelry from the affected limb.
Identify the snake or kill it for identification.
Seek medical attention.
What is the best position for a casualty with a stomach wound?
On his back with his knees flexed.
What is the first aid for bee stings?
1. Remove the singer(s) with knife or fingernail. Don't squeeze the venom sac on the stinger.
2. Wash the area.
3. Apply ice or freeze pack, if available.
4. If symptoms of allergic reactions appear, be prepared to perform basic life saving measures and seek immediate medical aid.
When are snakes most active?
During the period from twilight to daylight.
Can all snakes swim?
All species of snakes can swim.
Should any medication or cream be put on a burn?
No.
Should unbroken blisters be opened?
They should be protected and allowed to drain naturally unless it is in an area where friction is going to cause it to break open.
How should blisters be treated?
1. Wash the area with soap and water.
2. Sterilize a needle.
3. Open blister by sticking it at the lower edge.
4. Drain the blister by pressing it and removing the fluid with a clean cloth or gauze.
5. Apply a bandage.
How are open blisters treated?
1. Cleanse the area with soap and water.
2. Apply a bandage.
What are the symptoms of skin reactions to poison ivy, poison sumac or poison oak?
Redness, swelling, itching, rashes or blisters (secondary infection may occur when blisters break), burning sensation and general headaches and fever.
How is poison oak, poison sumac or poison ivy treated?
1. Expose the affected area and remove clothing and jewelry.
2. Clean the area with soap and water.
3. Apply rubbing alcohol (if available) to the affected area.
4. Apply calamine lotion.
5. Avoid dressing the affected area.
6. Seek medical help, especially if the rash is severe or if it is on the face or genitals.
What is an STD?
Sexually Transmitted Disease.
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What causes HIV?
The HIV virus
Is there presently a cure for AIDS?
No
Give two distinguishing characteristics of a non-poisonous snake.
Oval-shaped head and round pupils.
How can you identify a poisonous snake?
They have small deep pits between the nostrils and eyes on each side of the head.
Name the four poisonous snakes found in the U.S.
Rattlesnakes, copperheads, water moccasins and coral snakes.
Give two examples of pit vipers.
Rattlesnakes, bushmasters, copperheads, fer-de-lance, Malayan pit vipers and water moccasins.
What does PTSD stand for?
Post traumatic stress syndrome.
Is a Camel Spider bite poisonous?
No. Camel Spiders are not venomous. However... their bites can easily pierce human skin. If the bite is left untreated it may become infected.
What are some of the common diseases one could contract when performing disaster relief missions?
Malaria, cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV.
What document covers map reading and land navigation?
FM 3-25.26
What's a map?
A graphic representation of the Earth's surface, drawn to scale as seen from above.
Whats the purpose of a map?
To provide accurate information about the existence, location and distance between ground features like terrain, elevation, populated areas, routs of travel and communication.
What is the scale of a map?
The ratio of ground distance to map distance and expressed in a fraction.
How many map scales are there and what are the names?
The are three map scales: small, medium, and large.
Name several types of maps.
Topographic map, planimetric map, photomap, terrain model.
What is a topographic map?
A map that portrays the layout of terrain features, as well as relief, or the vertical distance of the feature (the distance from sea level).
What is a photomap?
An aerial photograph of a portion of the Earth's surface on which grid lines, place names, and approximate scale and direction have been added.
What is a planimetric map?
A map that only shows the horizontal positions of features. It differs from a topographic map in that it omits relief, usually represented by contour lines.
What is marginal information?
Instructions about the map's use, size, area.
Where is the map sheet name found?
Two places: the center of the upper margin and either the right or let side of the lower margin.
What is a map usually named after?
The most prominent geographical or cultural feature. Whenever possible it is named after the largest city on the map.
Where is a map sheet number found?
In two places: the upper right and lower left margins.
Where is the map series name found?
It's found in the upper left margin.
Where is the series number found?
The upper right and lower left margins.
Where is the scale of the map found?
In the upper left margin after the series name and in the lower margin at the center.
Where is the edition number of the map found?
The upper margin and in the lower left margin. It represents the age of the map -the higher the number the more recent the edition of the map. The initials, or the abbreviation after the edition number indicates who made the map.
Where is the declination diagram found?
It's located in the lower margin of large-scale maps.
What is a declination diagram?
It shows the angular relationships of true north, grid north and magnetic north.
Where are the bar scales of a map located?
In the center of the lower margin.
What is a bar scale?
A ruler used to convert map distance to ground distance.
What are the usual three units of measure in a bar scale?
They are meters, statute miles, nautical miles.
Where is the contour interval note found?
Usually below the bar scales in the middle of the lower margin.
What is a contour interval?
The vertical distance of the space between the contour lines. In more recent maps that distance or space is given in meters instead of feet.
Where is the legend of a map found?
In the lower left margin.
What is in a map legend?
The symbols that represent topographic features. The symbols are not always the same.
How many colors does a map usually have?
5
What are the colors most commonly used in maps?
Black, blue, green, brown, red (and reddish brown if the map is readable by red light).
What do the colors of the map stand for?
-Black indicates man-made features like buildings and roads.
-Blue identifies water features-lakes, swamps, rivers and drainage.
-Green is for vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards or vineyards.
-Brown identifies all relief features and elevation, as well as contour lines on older maps.
-Reddish brown is used for these features on newer maps. Red is used for cultural features such as populated areas, main roads, and on older maps it indicates boundaries.
What is longitude?
A measure of distance east or west of the prime meridian.
In what city is the prime meridian?
Greenwich, England.
In which direction are the lines of longitude drawn on a map?
North and south.
Lines of longitude are also known as what?
Meridians
What is latitude?
The measure of distance north or south of the equator.
What is the starting point for latitude?
The equator.
Lines of latitude are also known as what?
Parallels, because they run parallel to the equator.
What type of map system does the U.S. military use?
The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid.
What portion of the world is a UTM map designed for?
That part of the world between Lat 84 degrees North and Lat 80 degrees South.
What is a basic rule for finding coordinates on a map.
Beginning from the left-hand corner, read right and up.
How close will you get to a location with an eight-digit grid coordinate?
Within 10 meters.
What information is used to make a map useful?
Marginal data
What is the difference between an aerial photograph and a photomap?
A photomap is a reproduction of an aerial photograph on which grid lines, marginal data, place names and other important data have been added- much like a topographical map.
What is a map overlay and what is on it?
A sheet of clear plastic or transparent paper with information plotted on it at the same scale as the map or aerial photograph.
What is a map overlay used for?
Show current information about friendly and enemy troops, as well as any other pertinent data a leader ma need to know about a certain area. For instance- land mines, communication lines, obstacles.
Name the three types of contour lines.
Index, intermediate, supplementary. Intermediate contour lines fall between the index lines, are finer and are not number. Supplementary lines resemble dashes. They show sudden changes in elevation of at least half the contour interval.
How does an index contour line differ from other types of contour lines?
Index lines are heavier, have an elevation number at some point along the line, and occur every fifth line.
How is water flow determined on a map?
Contour lines will form a "V" which will point upstream.
How are valleys and draws shown on a map?
By a "U" or "V" shaped contour lines.
What is an azimuth?
It is a direction-a horizontal angle which is measured in degrees or mils from the north.
What is a back azimuth?
An azimuth that is 180 degrees in reverse of a given azimuth.
How is a back azimuth found?
If the given azimuth is 180 degrees or less-add 180 degrees. If the azimuth is 180 degrees or more subtract 180 degrees.
What is a resection?
Finding your unknown position by using the back azimuth of two known points. Draw lines from the known points. Where they intersect is your location. Remember to convert all magnetic azimuths to grid azimuths.
What is an intersection?
Finding an unknown point by shooting an azimuth to it from two known points. The location is where the lines of the azimuth intersect. Remember to convert the magnetic azimuths to grid azimuths.
Name the five major terrain features of a map.
Hill, ridge, valley, saddle, depression.
What are the minor terrain features?
Draw, spur, cliff, cut and fill.
Name some types of compasses.
Lensatic, artillery, wrist/pocket, and protractor.
What are the two most common compasses used in the army?
The lensatic and artillery compasses.
How many scales are on the lensatic compass?
Two. One is in degress, the other is in mils.
How many mils are on a compass?
6400
What branch of the army uses mils?
The artillery.
An artillery compass is also known as what type of compass?
An M-2 Compass
How many degrees on a compass?
360
Name three parts of a compass.
The three main parts are the base, cover and lens.
Also there is a sighting wire, graduated straight edge, bezel ring, floating dial, thumb loop, rear sight (lens), sighting slot, luminous magnetic arrow, short luminous line, fixed black index line, luminous sighting dots.
What is the bezel ring and how is it used?
It is a ratchet device that clicks when turned. It will click 120 times when fully rotated, and each click is equal to three degrees.
Why does the bezel click?
It was designed as an aid to determine degrees during nighttime use.
Name two characteristics of the lensatic compass that allow it to be used at night.
The luminous sighting dots, luminous magnetic arrow, short luminous line, the click of the bezel ring, and a luminous E and W.
What are the two methods for holding a compass.
The centerhold technique and the compass-to-cheek technique
What affects the performance of a compass?
Metal objects and sources of electricity.
Define magnetic declination.
The variation of the true north from the magnetic north. The declination variation is found in the declination diagram at the bottom of the margin of the map.
What is a bench mark?
A surveyor's sign which indicates elevation.
How would you hold a lensatic compass?
Level and firm-away from electrical equipment or metal equipment such as weapons.
Describe the fastest way to orient a map
Place a compass on a map and align it with the grid lines ensuring that the compass needle points north.
How would you orient a map without a compass?
By aligning it with the observable terrain features.
Name the quadrants of a map.
Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, Southwest.
What three elements are necessary for dead reckoning in land navigation?
Known starting point, known distance and known azimuth.
What is a "flot"?
That is an abbreviation for "forward line of own troops."
What colors are used in a map overlay and what do they mean?
Black = Boundaries
Blue = friendly forces
Red = enemy forces
Yellow = contaminated area, friendly or enemy
Green = engineer obstacles, friendly or enemy
When colors are not used what symbol is used for enemy forces?
Double lines
What size unit is indicated by three dots?
a platoon or detachment
What army manual covers drill and ceremony?
FM 3-21.5
FM 3-21.5 is descended from what document?
The Blue Book
Who wrote the Blue Book?
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Who was Baron Friedrich von Steuben?
A Prussian, former staff officer to Fredrick the Great, who was hired by General George Washington.
Why was he hired by Washington?
Washington recognized that his troops lacked organization, discipline, control and teamwork.
What's the purpose of drill?
Enable a commander to move a unit from one place to another in an orderly and timely manner.
Promotes discipline, teamwork, confidence, pride, attention to detail.
What's the purpose of ceremonies?
Adds color and pageantry to military life while preserving tradition and promoting esprit de corps.
What are the three methods of teaching drill?
Step-by-step
Talk-through
By-the-numbers
Most drill commands are composed how many parts?
Two
What are the two parts of most drill commands?
The preparatory command.
The command of execution.
Describe Cadence
The uniform step and rhythm in marching.
What is the length of a marching step?
30 Inches
How long is a half-step?
15 inches
Describe a rank
A line that is one element in depth.
What is a file?
A column that has a front of one element.
What is an interval?
The lateral distance between elements.
Define distance.
The space between elements either in a column or file.
Describe how marching step is measured.
Heel to heel.
Describe how arms are swung while marching.
Nine to the front and six to the rear.
Describe a drill command.
It is an oral order of the leader or commander
On what foot is the command "halt" given?
The left foot.
What is the length of a marching step?
30 Inches
How long is a half-step?
15 inches
Describe a rank
A line that is one element in depth.
What is a file?
A column that has a front of one element.
What is an interval?
The lateral distance between elements.
Define distance.
The space between elements either in a column or file.
Describe how marching step is measured.
Heel to heel.
Describe how arms are swung while marching.
Nine to the front and six to the rear.
Describe a drill command.
It is an oral order of the leader or commander
On what foot is the command "halt" given?
The left foot.
How many steps per minute is "quick time" march?
120
How many steps per minute is "double time" march?
180
Do all steps begin with the left foot from "halt"?
No
which marching step does not begin on the left foot?
Right step march.
What person in a platoon is never out of step?
The platoon guide or leader.
How is "Open ranks, march" executed?
The first rank takes two paces forward.
The second rank takes one pace forward.
The third rank stands fast.
The fourth rank takes two steps backward.
What is the length of a backwards step?
15 Inches
Who is responsible for the appearance and training of the unit color guard?
The Command Sergeant Major.
Describe the commands for morning formation.
They are "fall in" and "receive the report".
What is the only command given from "inspection arms"?
Ready, port arms.
What are the two types of platoon formations?
Column and line formations.
What is the length of a right or left step?
15 inches.
Describe the five rests executed from the halt position.
They are: at ease, stand at ease, rest, parade rest, and fall out.
Describe how the "halt" command is executed during a left or right step march.
It is a two-count command with the preparatory command given when the heels are together, and the command of execution given the next step that the heels are together.
How many steps should separate platoons in a company formation?
Five steps.
Describe the difference between "route step, march" and "at ease, march".
The only major difference is that the troops must remain silent during "at ease, march". Both marches allow personnel to march out of step but maintain distance and interval.
Describe what an "element" is.
It can be a soldier, a squad, section, platoon or company-any unit serving as a part of a larger unit.
Where is the "head" of an element?
It is the leading element of a column.
What is the "post" of a formation?
It is the correct place an officer or an NCO will stand in a prescribed formation.
What is the depth of a formation?
It's the distance from the front to the rear of a formation and includes the front and rear element.
What is a directive?
An oral order given by a commander to direct or cause a subordinate leader or lead element to take action.
What is a "flank"?
The right or left side of a formation as observed by an element with that formation.
What is a cordon?
A line of soldiers to honor a dignitary upon entering or exiting from a place or vehicle.
Describe the "base" of a formation.
It is the element on which movements are planned or regulated.
What command revokes a preparatory command.
As you were.
What is inflection?
It's the rise and fall in pitch and the tone changes of the voice.
On what side of the body are sabers and swords worn?
The left side.
Who wears sabers?
Officers while participating in ceremonies with troops under arms or as directed.
Who wears swords?
Platoon sergeants or first sergeants while participating in ceremonies with troops under arms, or as directed.
What is the basic difference between the saber and the sword?
The toe of the saber is slightly curved while the toe of the sword is straight.
What are the four prescribed formations for a company?
Company in line with platoons in line.
Company in column with platoons in column.
Company in column with platoons in line (primarily used for ceremonies).
Company mass formation.
Should a solider raise the left arm in order to obtain correct interval when the command is "Dress right dress"?
Yes.
What is the command to avoid an obstacle in the line of march?
Incline around_____.
How many degrees is the head turned on the command of "eyes right"?
Forty-five degrees.
Does everybody turn their head on "eyes right"?
No. The right file remains looking forward.
What command brings you back to attention from "route step, march"?
Quick time, march.
What command should be given when marching troops across a bridge?
Route step, march.
What does "cover" mean?
Elements must dress directly behind each other.
Who sets the time for the sounding of reveille?
The installation commander.
Who sets the time for the sounding of retreat?
The installation commander.
How many volleys of rifle fire are customary at a military funeral?
Three.
What type of squad formation is used in counting off?
Line or column formation.
How is the command for counting off in a squad formation executed?
The command is "count, off".
How does the squad execute counting off when in a line formation?
The counting is executed from right to left. On the command of execution "off" each soldier, except the right and the right flank troop counts off with one. The next troop counts off his or her number and simultaneously turns his or her head and eyes to the front.
How does a squad count off when in a column formation?
The counting off is executed from front to rear. On the command of execution "off" the soldier at the head of the column turns his head and eyes over the right shoulder and counts off with one. The soldier immediately returns to the position of attention after counting. Every troop executes their numbers in sequence just as the number one troop. The last person in the column does not count off over his or her right shoulder.
What FM covers guard duty?
FM 22-6
What is the 1st general order?
I will guard everything within the limits of my post and quit my post only when properly relieved.
What is the 2nd general order?
I will obey my special orders and perform all my duties in a military manner.
What is the 3rd general order?
I will report violations of my special orders, emergencies and anything not covered in my instructions to the commander of the relief.
What are special orders?
Those orders that detail exactly what a guard is supposed to do and when to do them at a particular post.
What are the duties of a guard?
To comply, understand and memorize the general orders and special orders of that particular post.
What is a guard responsible for at a post?
The guard is responsible for the post and all government property within view.
How many types of guards are there?
Three- Interior, special and exterior.
What is interior guard duty?
A guard unit under orders to preserve order, protect property and enforce military regulations.
What is the purpose of special guards?
Special guards protect the property not covered by the main guard.
Usually how many reliefs is a guard made of?
Three
Explain the make-up of a guard force.
It consists of two basic parts: The main guard which is on duty, and the reserve guard force which consists of the other two shifts (reliefs) which are not posted.
What two qualifications must a guard possess to be eligible for duty?
Know the general orders and familiarity with the use of his or her weapon.
What is you chain of command as a sentinel?
1. Commander of the relief.
2. Sergeant of the guard.
3. Officer of the guard.
4. Field officer of the day.
5. Commanding officer of the guard mount.
What does F.O.D. mean?
Field officer of the day
What is the purpose of a supernumerary?
To take the place of a sentinel who isn't able to perform guard duty.
Does a guard or sentry salute indoors?
Yes.
When does a guard or sentinel render the "Present Arms" salute?
When at right or left shoulder arms.
When is a guard or sentinel not required to salute?
When the duty prevents it, or when on a post that requires the use of a challenge and password.
What are the two parts of a countersign?
Challenge and password.
What does the phrase, "hours of challenging" mean?
The hours of poor visability when a challenge is necessary--during darkness, heavy fog or rain.
If you were on guard duty and a colonel or a general ordered you to allow him to inspect your weapon would you be required to do so?
No. When a guard is on duty he or she only takes orders from the commander of the relief, sergeant of the guard, officer of the day or officer of the guard.
What is the normal length of time for a guard to stay on his post?
Two hours.
What is the length of time a guard is off before he has to go back to his or her post?
Four hours
How long is a tour of duty for a guard?
24 hours.
What is a parole word?
A password know only to the guard and certain people authorized to inspect the guard.
What is the correct response to a Parole word?
Both parts of the countersign
What method would best safeguard a large area by a small number of guards?
The patrol system
Describe the proper procedure for challenging when two or more persons are approaching your post.
Halt them far enough away from you so that they can't overpower you (at least 10 paces). Have one person advance to be recognized. Make that person set down their identification and move back. Get the ID. Challenge the person, if he or she returns the correct password let him pass. Allow the other to pass only if you're satisfied with the first person's identification.
What is deadly force?
The ability to cause death or bodily harm.
What is the correct use of deadly force?
Only that amount of power necessary to make an apprehension.
When should a guard use deadly force?
1. When the property designated for protection is being stolen or destroyed.
2. To protect oneself from serious bodily harm, imminent danger or death.
How many classes of orders are there?
Two. General and special.
What does SALUTE stand for?
Size, Activity, Location, Unit, Time, Equipment.
What are the five S's of guarding enemy prisoners?
Search, segregate, silence, speed and safeguard.
What manual covers Army leadership and counseling?
FM 22-100
What is military leadership?
The ability to influence others in such a manner as to accomplish the a mission in a timely manner.
What is tact?
A keen sense of what to say and do in order to maintain good relations with others and to avoid offense.
Describe discipline.
An attitude of an individual or group that promptly obeys orders or takes appropriate action in the absence of orders.
Describe motivation.
The ability to make people want to do what you know must be done.
Describe supervision.
Controlling a situation and ensuring a task or mission is done properly.
What are the four indicators of good leadership?
Morale, discipline, esprit de corps and proficiency.
Define leadership.
Leadership is influencing people by providing purpose direction and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization.
What are the three basic needs of professional self-motivated soldiers?
Job security, promotion, approval of peers and superiors.
What are the two barriers of communications?
Psychological and physical.
Who is responsible for the training and basic soldiering of troops?
The NCO.
How many human needs are there?
Four.
What are the four human needs?
Physical needs, security needs, social needs and higher (spiritual) needs.
What are the four elements of leadership?
The leader, the follower, the situation and communication.
Which human need is most important?
They all have the same importance.
What is proficiency?
The technical, tactical and physical ability of a unit to accomplish a mission
What are the five styles of leadership?
Directing, participating, delegating, transformational, and transactional.
What are the three levels of leadership?
They are direct, organizational and strategic.
Give an example of direct leadership.
It is face-to-face, first-line leadership where soldiers see their leaders all the time.
Give an example of organizational leadership.
It is primarily indirect leadership executed through staffs and subordinate commanders.
What is technical proficiency?
Knowing how to successfully employ your equipment, personnel during a mission.
What is a principle?
A guideline for a person's conduct or actions.
How many principles of Army leadership are there?
Eleven.
Name four leadership principles.
-Know yourself and seek self-improvement.
-Be technically and tactically proficient.
-Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions.
-Make sound and timely decisions.
-Set the example.
Know your soldiers and look out for their well being.
-Keep your subordinates informed.
-Develop a sense of responsibility in your subordinates.
-Ensure the task is understood, supervised and accomplished.
-Build the team.
-Employ your unit in accordance with its capabilities.
Does a commander have the have an open door policy?
Yes.
What is a belief?
Something that a person holds as being true- whether it is about a person, an idea or a thing.
Describe the meaning of values.
An attitude about the relative worth or importance of people, jobs, ideas or things.
What is the meaning of norms?
They are standards of behavior or laws shared by members of a group in order to live together.
What are the two categories of norms?
Formal and informal.
What is a formal norm?
A written or spoken law.
What is an example of a formal norm?
UCMJ, traffic laws, SOPs.
What is the meaning of informal norm?
A rule that isn't written down or expressed, but usually followed by a group. For example, soldiers not leaving their wounded buddies without aid.
Describe the meaning of ethics.
Ethics are principles or standards that guide professionals to do the moral or right thing.
What is the acronym for Army Values?
LDRSHIP
What are the Army values, according to FM22-100?
They are Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal Courage.
What is military authority?
The legitimate power to direct subordinates or to take action.
What are attributes?
A person's fundamental qualities and characteristics.
What is command authority?
The power a person exercises over others as a result of grade or assignment.
What are the three attributes of an Army leader?
Mental, Physical and Emotional.
Name some of the mental attributes of a leader.
They include will, self-discipline, initiative, judgement, self-confidence, intelligence, and cultural awareness.
What is communication?
The exchange of information between two or more persons.
What are the parts of communication?
Sending and receiving.
What should the receiver of a message or communications return to the sender or transmitter?
Feedback.
What are the three important parts in the exchange of communications?
Message, content, and context.
What is the cause of most problems in leadership?
Communications.
Which communication barrier is the harder to overcome, psychological or physical?
Psychological.
What other building was struck by al-Qaeda on 9/11?
The Pentagon.
Describe some physical barriers to communication.
Noise, distance, attention distractors.
Describe the difference between a duty and a task.
Tasks are the specific things done to accomplish the duty- which is a general guideline of what is expected of soldiers.
What are the seven steps to problem solving?
1. Identify the problem.
2. Identify fact and assumptions.
3. Generate alternatives.
4. Analyze the alternatives.
5. Compare the alternatives.
6. Make and execute your decision
7. Assess the results and adjust your plan if necessary.
Describe the four steps of ethical reasoning.
1. Define the ethical problem, or dilemma.
2. Gather the facts, know the relevant rules.
3. Develop and evaluate a course of action.
4. Choose a solution that best represents Army values.
What are the four categories of the Army Leadership Framework?
Values, attributes, skills, and actions.
What basically develops leadership?
Experience, environment, and learning.
Describe three things that affect a unit's morale.
Military Justice, chow, mail, supply, billets.
Describe the meaning of cohesion.
A bond between soldiers made of respect, trust confidence and understanding.
What are the fundamental skills a leader must know, according to the BE-KNOW-DO framework?
Those are interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, technical skills and tactical skills.
On what date was the World Trade Center of New York attacked by al-Qaeda?
Tuesday, 11 September 2001.
Give an example of strategic leadership.
A strategic leader may be a theater commander in chief (CINC), or a division commander. They are responsible for organizations that influence several thousand to hundreds of thousands of people.
Describe initiative
It is the ability to be a self-starter, to do something without being told, to recognize a solution or opportunity and use it to accomplish the mission.
According to FM 22-100, what two interacting sets of characteristics make up character?
Values and attributes.
How many aircraft wer hijacked by al-Qaeda on 9/11?
Four aircraft. Two flew into the World Trade Center towers, one flew into the Pentagon, one crashed into a field in Shanksville, Somerset County, Pennsylvania.
On what date did the U.S. invade Afghanistan, beginning Operation Enduring Freedom?
Sunday, 07 October 2001.
On what date did the U.S. invade Iraq, thus beginning Operation Iraqi Freedom?
Wednesday, 19 March 2003
Will the study of human behavior make a better leader of a person?
Yes.
What is leadership assessment?
Analysis of your strong and weak leadership traits, and improving on them.
What should a leader do before making changes in a new command?
Observe the soliders and how they operate, talk with the outgoing leaders about subordinates and the job, review the organization's SOP and regulations, identify the key people inside and outside the unit, look at your own leadership.
Describe some elements of active listening?
Active elements include eye contact, body posture, head nods, facial expressions and verbal expressions
What Army manual covers counseling?
FM 22-100
What are the three approaches to counseling?
Directive, non-directive and combined.
What are the two major categories of counseling?
They are event oriented and performance/professional growth.
Are leaders required to counsel soldiers?
Yes. The leader who neglects counseling his subordinates is negligent of his duty.
What is developmental counseling?
Developmental counseling is a plan for soldiers to use to achieve individual and organizational goals.
What are the four stages of the counseling process?
They are: identify the need for counseling, prepare for counseling, conduct counseling, and follow up.
What are some types of professional counseling?
Promotion Counseling,
Reenlistment Counseling.
Should written counselings be kept?
Yes, whenever the counseling is considered to be formal or of an important matter.
Should a leader make decisions for a subordinate regarding personal problems?
No. A leader should make suggestions or recommendations, and tell the troop about about available options to resolve a personal problem.
What is required for successful counseling?
-Effective communications. When two people are able to talk to each other without interruption and with honesty, then you have effective communication.
-Make the person feel comfortable and at ease.
-Listen to the person.
-Don't put the person down. Don't tell the person his or her problem is common- or no big deal.
-Guarantee the counselee that all sessions will be confidential.
What is active listening?
It involves concentration on what a person is saying, and letting that person know that he or she is being heard and understood.
What is a "reflective statement"?
A phrase that restates what the person just said.
Give some examples of reflective statements.
-So, what you're saying is...
-In other words you're saying...
-It sounds like...
-You believe...
What are some basic skills of counseling?
Listening and watching
Responding
Guiding
What are some things to watch for when counseling?
Eye contact, posture, facial expressions, distracting behavior like drumming on the table, looking around.