Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Saggital Plane
divides the animal into left and right unequal sides
Median Plane
Divides animal into equal halves along the spine
Transverse Plane
Divides animal into head and tail halves
Dorsal Plane
Divides the animal into back and belly (think of the dorsal fin on the back of a dolphin).
Cranial Direction
Toward the head
Rostral Direction
Toward the nose when referring to the head
Caudal Direction
Towards the tail
Dorsal Direction
Toward the back
Ventral Direction
Towards the belly
Medial Direction
Towards the inside of the body-towards the spine for example.
Lateral Direction
Towards the outside/side of the body
Deep Direction
Towards the center
Superficial Direction
Towards the surface
Proximal Direction
Towards the body (on an extremity)
Distal Direction
Away from the body (on an extremity)
Describe the levels the body is organized into
cells--tissues--organs--organ systems
What are the 4 elements that make up 95% of living tissue
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen
cells with no nucleus
cells with a nucleus
What was Robert Hooke's discovery?
Made his own microscope and developed the cell theory
What are the 3 essential cell structures?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
What are 2 functions of the cell membrane?
1.Barrier from outside environment
2.Governs the movement of atoms and molecules.
What are the 2 layers in the cell membrane?
hydrophilic and hydrophobic
Hyrophobic layer
1 of 2 layers of the cell membrane -inside layer
Hydrophilic layer
1 of 2 layers of the cell membrane-outside layer
an extension of the cell membrane that propels mucous and debris across the cell surface
inner substance of the cell
What are organelles?
structures inside the cytoplasm
structures inside the cytoplasm that have specialized functions
Powerhouse of the cell, breaks down glucose and creates ATP
Where protein is produced
Endoplasmic Reticulum ER
The ER transports and stores materials in the cell, There are 2 types: smooth and rough.
Rough ER
Has ribosomes on the surface
Smooth ER
Does not have ribosomes on the surface
Golgi Apparatus
acts as distribution center for molecules (packs proteins created by ER and ships them out)
They break down and digest cellular debris
When a lysosome digests a dead cell (self digestion)
Nucleus main function
Contains DNA and directs cellular activities
What is the largest organelle?
the nucleus
What are the 4 main parts of the nucleus?
1. nuclear envelope 2. nucleoplasm 3.chromatin 4. nucleoli
What is the nuclear envelope?
layer covering the nucleus which allows protein molecules to move in and RNA molecules to move out.
gel like substance that fills the nucleus
inside the nucleus, contains DNA and proteins arranged in loose strands-during cell division the chromatin become chromosomes
inside the nucleus, where ribosomal subunits are made, also contains the DNA that governs how RNA is made
Interstitial fluid
fluid found in tissues
What are the 3 compartments where water is found in the body?
Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid.
What are the 2 major components of body fluids?
ions and electrolytes
charges substances located in all the fluid compartments,
Ions that are capable of conducting electrical impulses
What are the 4 passive membrane processes
1.Diffusion 2.Facilitated Diffusion 3.Osmosis 4.Filtration
When molecules move from a concentrated region to an area less concentrated.
What is the main difference between passive vs. active membrane transport?
Passive does not use energy (ATP) while active does
What are 3 factors that determine if molecules pass through the membrane through passive diffusion?
1. molecule size (smaller pass easier) 2.lipid solubility (lipids pass easier) 3.molecular charge
Facilitated Diffusion
when a carrier protein allows an otherwise large or nonlipid soluble molecule to enter the cell membrane
Give an example of Facilitated Diffusion
glucose entering the cell
What limits facilitated diffusion?
the # of carrier proteins in the cell
the movement of water to acheive equal concentrations. When there is high and low concentrations of water seperated by semi-permeable membrane, then the 2 solutions will find equilibrium. Only applies to water
What fluid is moved in osmosis vs. diffusion
osmosis moves water while diffusion moves solutes.
when intra and extracellular fluids have equal concentrations
when extracellular fluid is less concentrated than intracellular fluid, therefore water flows into the cell to equal out the concentrations which causes the cell to swell
when the extracellular fluid is more concentrated than intracellular fluid, therefore water flows out of the cell to equal out the concentration, causing the cell to shrink
based on pressure to move liquids, uses hydrostatic pressure (ie:blood pressure) to move a liquid from higher to lower concentration
Active Transport
process that moves ions or molecules across a cell membrane-does not require a concentration gradient-uses atp(energy) to be accomplished
when substances go into the cell-the plasma membrane engulfs the substances and closes the membrane around it
the passage of materials that are too large to be diffused out of a cell-the cell packages the materials into vesicles and pushes them out of the cell.
2 main phases of mitosis
interphase and mitotic phase
period between cell division where growth and functions are normal
1st part of Interphase where cell enlarges and organelles replicate
part of interphase when enzymes and proteins are synthesized and centrioles complete their replication
an organelle that aids in cell division-it splits into 2 and migrates to opposite sides of the dividing cell to organize spindle fibers
holds a pair of chromatids together as a chromosome and then holds that chromosome to a spindle fiber during cell division
Synthetic Phase (S)
during interphase when cell begins to replicate and synthesize DNA to prepare for cell division
What are the 3 subphases of Interphase?
Growth 1 (G1), Synthetic phase (S), Growth 2 (G2)
1st stage of mitosis: Chromosomes coil and condense, nuclear membrane dissolves, the spindle forms
2nd stage of mitosis: spindle fibers line up all the chromosomes in the middle of the cell
3rd stage of mitosis: spindles pull 2 identical copies of each chromosome apart at the centromere to opposite sides of the cell,
4th and final stage of mitosis: chromosones become less condensed, spindle dissapears, nuclear membrane re-forms around each new set of chromosomes, cell pinches into 2 new daughter cells
Which organelle is responsible for breaking down material taken into the cell?
Lysosomes (think of lysol)
cell division that occurs for growth and tissue repair
Copies DNA molecules to RNA molecules
What contains all the instructions to make cell proteins
moving away from the mouth