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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
prehistory
the period before the invention of writing
hominid
a creature belonging to the family Hominidae, which includes human and Humanlike species
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age, a long period of human devlopment before the devlopment of agriculture
hunting and gathering
followed animals and hunted them
Neolithic
New Stone Age (10,000-4,000 BCE) which was marked by the discovery and msatery of agriculture
slash and burn
early form of agriculture where they slashed the trees and burned the bark to help fertilize soil
Mesopotamia
term meaning "between the rivers" in this case the Tigris and Euphrates; Sumer and Akkad are 2 of the earliest societies
Tigris and Euphrates
2 rivers in the heart of Mesopotamia
Sumer
population center of Mesopotamia
city-state
urban areas taht controlled surrounding agricultural regions and taht were often loosely connected in a broader political structure with other city-states
ziggurat
a Mesopotamian temple
Sargon of Akkad
(2370-2315 BCE) created empire by seizing trade routes and natural resoruces, conqured most of Mesopotamia
Hammurabi
creator of a code with strict consequences for crimes
patriarchal
system of organization in which males dominate the family and wehere public institutions, descent, and succesion aret raced thorugh the male line
cuneiform
written language of the Sumerians, possibly the 1st written script in the world
monotheism
belief in only one god, a rare concept in the ancient world
Yahweh
god of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influenced later Christianity and Islam
Phoenicians
a maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early alphabetical script (1500 bce)
Indo-European
series of tribes from southern russia who over a period of millenia embarked on a series of migrations from India through werstern Europe; their great legacy was teh broad distribution of Indo-European langauges throughout Europe
funery customs
death and burial customs
cataract
an unnavigable stretch of rapids and waterfalls
pharaoh
an Egyptian king considred to be a god on earth f
Kush
Nubian African kingdom that conqu and controlled, was conqured by Egypt 8th century BCE
hieroglypihnc
ancient Eygptian written languages
papyrus
plant used as paper
Rosetta Stone
stoen with the same texts in 2 Eygptian language scripts (hieroglypinc and demotic) and classical greek
bantu
africna peoples who originally lived in the area of presnt day Nigeria; around 2000 bce they began a centuries long migration that took them to mmost of sub-Saharan africa, the Bantu wre very influential especially linguistically
pygmies
people in Africa who height is 150 cm (4 foot eleven) or shorter
Aryans and Dravidians
European tribes who settled in India after 1500 BCE, their union w/ indigenous Dravidians from the basis of Hinduism
Harrappans
early brilliant Indian society centred around Harrap and Mohnejo-Daro
Sanskrit
sacred language of the early Aryans
Rig Veda
an ancient indian collectio of vedic sanskrit hymsn dedicated to the gods
raja
an indian king
punjab
northern part of modern day pakistan
caste
social class system in which distinctions and restrictions on marriage, occupation, hadling of food, and other matters are trasnferred through genrations of class
varnas
color, refers tos ocial classes, levels of the caste system
huang he
"yellow river" takes its name from teh avst quantities of light colored loess soil that it picks up along its route, consitency ofasoup
loess
extremely fine, powder-like soil that was deposited on the plain of northern China after retreat of glaciers at the end of the last ice age
mandate of heaven
chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the mandate, or approval, of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population
oracle bones
chinese shang dynasty (1766-1122) means of foretelling the future
mesoamerica
region encompassing central mexico to honduras and el salvador
olmecs
early central american society (1200-100) bce that centerred around sites at san lorenza, la venta, and tres zapotes and that influenced later maya
obsidian
type of rock used to make knives and axes
maya
brilliant central american society (300-1100) known for math, astronomy, and a sophisticated written language
maize
teh creal grain that was domesticated in mesoamerica
cacao
agricultura produce : chocolate
teotihuacan
central american society (200-700) ce its pyramid of the sun was the largest structure in mesoamerica
oceania
term referring to the pacific ocean basin
aboriginal
hunting and gathering peoples
austronesian
people who by as early as 2000 bce began to explore and settle in lands of the pacific ocean basis a language group that includes oceanic languages
lapita
society from new guinea to tonga (1500 - 500 bce) with agricultural villages, networks of trade, and communication and hierarchal chiefdoms