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19 Cards in this Set

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Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams was the wife of 2nd President John Adams. Attempted to get rights for women from her husband.
Daniel Shays
Radical veteran of the Revolution. Led a rebellion against tyranny; rebellion composed of debtors demanding cheap paper money, lighter taxes, & suspension of mortgage foreclosures.
Alexander Hamilton
High political leader: 1786. Saved Constitutional Convention from complete failure by engineering the adoption of his report. It called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philly to bolster the the Art of Confed. Congress did just that, and called a convention in 1787 to revise the Art of Confed.
Favored strong central government; wrote "The Federalist Papers" w/John Jay & James Madison.
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution." Most notable contributions to Constitution helped to convince public to ratify it.
Checks & Balances
"The principle of gov't under which separate branches are employed to prevent actions by the other branches and are induced to share power. Seen as necessary for the US gov't
Republicanism
Theory=the gov't was under the authority of the people it governs. The power in the peoples hands is the basis for Democracy. The writers of the constitution used the Republicanism theory
States' rights
The anti-federalists opposed the constitution because they thought it did not give enough power to the states. They believed that each state deserved certain rights that were not clearly defined in the constitution, but were pertinent in democracy. Since these rights were not included in the original draft of the constitution there was a delay in the ratification process.
The Great Compromise of 1787
Compromise between the large and small stats of the colonies. Resolved that there would be representation by population in the HoR and equal representation in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House.
Articles of Confederation
The first "constitution" governing the US after the Revolution. Ratified in 1781 and it provided for a 'firm league of friendship;' the legislative branch (Congress) had no power to regulate commerce or forcibly collect taxes and there was no national executive or judicial branch; it was an important stepping-stone towards the present constitution bcs w/o it the states would never have consented to the Constitution.
Electoral College
Group of electors that are elected by the people to elect the President in every election year. This system was born alongside the US Constitution. This system is a way of speeding up Presidential elections. The states' votes are determined by population.
1785 Land Ordinance
Stated taht the disputed land in the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.
3/5s Compromise
Where a black slave counted as 3/5 of a person when the population was counted. The S states wanted them counted as 1 whole person for more reps in the HoR; the N didn't want them counted at all
1787 Northwest Ordinance
Sections of land were under the control of the Federal Gov't. Once a territory was inhabited by 60,000 then congress would admit it as a state. The original 13 colonies were charters. Slavery was prohibited in the NW Territories.
Anti-federalists
Disagreed w/the Constitution because they believed peoples' rights were being taken away w/o a Bill of Rights ; also didn't agree w/annual elections and the non-existence of God in gov't
Shay's Rebellion
1786: Led by Daniel Shays, a Rev War vet. Uprising flared up in W MA. Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Rev war vets, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of mortgage foreclosure.
Movement smashed and fear struck into hearts of propertied classes.
Federalists
US political party consisting of the more respectable citizens of the time; Federalists lived along the E seaboard in the 1790s. Believed in advocating a strong federal gov't and fought for the adoption of the US Constitution.
The "large-state plan"
Plan proposed by Virginia to set up a bi-cameral congress based on population, giving the larger states an advantage. First written as a framework for the Constitution.
Constitution of the United States
The foundation of the country's gov't: drafted in Philadelphia in 1787. Established a gov't with direct authority over all citizens, defines the powers of the nat'l gov't, and establishes protection for the rights of states and every individual.
The Federalist Papers
Series of articles writte nas a source of propaganda for a stronger central gov't. WRitten by Alexander HAmilton, John Jay, & James Madison.