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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list 7 functions of bones
support,protection, leverage/body mov,blood cell formation,mineral storage,shock absorption, fat storage
classifications of bones (5)
long, short, flat, irregular, round/sesamoid
epiphysis
flared and w/ hyaline cartilage that forms joint
diaphysis
shaft
periosteum
fibrous and vascular membrane covering all non-cartilage surface
compact bone
composed of osteons
spongy bone
composed of trabeculae (w/gaps)
medulla
linear cavity formed by the hollow of the compact bone
(hollow is more structurally sound)
marrow
soft connective tissue that fills medulla
a. Red-RBC formation
b. Yellow- fat storage
how many bones does an adult have?
206 bones
intramembraneous bones
originate in sheet-like layers of connective tissue.
ex.)flat bones such as skull and clavicle
endochondral bones
(Most bones produce by this process)
from ossification of hyaline cartilage bone models.
factors affecting bone growth(4)
Vitamins, UV exposure, mechanical stress, hormones
a. Pituitary dwarfism
(hormonal osteopathology)
a. lower levels of human growth hormone/HGH that stimulates mitosis in cartilage cells in the epiphyseal disks
b. pituitary gigantism
(hormonal osteopathology)
b. high levels of HGH-increatses mitosis in cartilage-TALL
Acromegaly
High levels of HGH-results in enlarged hands, feet, jaw
Chondrodysplasia
irregular collagen fibers-form stunted growth, and deformed joints
fractures
any cracking or breaking of bone
Fracture Origins
a. traumatic
b. pathologic
a.through injury
b. through disease
a.closed fracture
b.compund fracture
c.complete
d.incomlete
a. skin not broken
b.skin broken exposing fractr
c.bone broken in 2 pieces
d.bone not broken in 2
osteoporosis
trabeculae are lost and compact bone develops open spaces due to inactivity of osteoblasts & cont. osteoclast activity
Risk factors of osteoporosis
female, post-menopausal, light complexion, alcohol, smoking, genes, anorexia, lack of exercise in adolescence.
axial
skull, hyoid, vertebral cloumn, thoracic cage, sternum
Infantile Sull
fontanels
allow for cranial molding
appendicular
appendages and their support structures
(axial osteopathology)
cleft palate
incompletely fused palatine processes or palatines
mastoiditis
(axial osteopathology)
bacterial infection of mastoid via middle ear infection. Meninges may become infected
(axial osteopathology)
bulging disc
w/age, annulus cracks, nucleus
(axial osteopathology)
herniated disc
increases pressure increases cracks and nucleus squeezes out=numbness, muscle weakness.
(axial osteopathology)
vertebral column asymmetry
vertebrae not evenly curved
(axial osteopathology)
kyphosis
exaggerated thoracic curvature. causes hunchback, rounded shoulders
(axial osteopathology)
lordosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature. causes swayback (leaning forward)
(axial osteopathology)
scoliosis
lateral displacement. causes one hip or shoulder to be lower than other.
(axial osteopathology)
dorsal bowing
discs shrink and compress w/ age. causes dorsal rotation=back low
polydactyly
possession of extra digits
clubfoot
foot twists out of normal position during development, cause unknown.
tibialits
inflammation of tibial tuberosity due to overuse of thigh muscles.
(Aging of the skeleton)
osteoclasts>osteoblasts
bone removal exceeds bone deposition osteoporosis can result.Spongy bonereabsorbed b4 compact bone
(Aging of the skeleton)
height reduction
compression of discs and vertebral body. 1/16th/yr. post 30th b-day. ups compression fracures rate.
(Aging of the skeleton)
dec. collagen/calcium ratio
brittle bones
(Aging of the skeleton)
interosteonic gaps
as bones remodeling continues, not all osteons are replaced-gaps in bone.
(Aging of the skeleton)
joint degeneration
cartilage and ligaments regerneration decreases
joints
junctions between nones that function to articulate bones
synarthritic
immovable
ex)cranial joints
amphiarthrotic
some movement ex)coccyx
diarthrotic
movable joints
ex)elbow
fibrous
bound by collagenous ligaments
cartilaginous
bound by hyaline cartilage
ex.)pubic syphesis
synovial
bound by capsule of collagen
fibrous joints:3
connected by collagenous ligaments
a. syndesmosis
b. suture
c. Gomphosis
carilaginous joints:2
connected by firbrocartilage
a. synchondrosis
b. symphysis
synovial joints
most body joints are synovial and all are diartrotic
(synovial joints)
articular cartilage
f: reduce friction
(synovial joints)
subchondral plate
f: absorb shock
(synovial joints)
joint capsule
f: encloses and stabilizes joint, holds synovial fluid in place.
(synovial joints)
synovial membrane
f:secrete synovial fluid which sushions, lubricates, supply nutrients to cartilage.
(synovial joints)
meniscus
f?: divide joint into compartments and absorb compression
(synovial joints)
bursae
synovial membrane-lined chambers/sacs w/ synovial fluid of tendons
f: provides cushioning over bony projections for movenment/ex.)olecrenon process
Bursitis
inflammation of a bursae
ex.)tennis elbow and olecranon bursae
joint immobility
results in cartilage degeneration due to lack of diffusion of nutrients from surrounding tissues to cartilage
path note
obesity and jogging may fracture subchondral plate causing extreme pain
arthritis
inflamation of a joint
(arthritis)
osteo
genetic or traumatic degeneration of the joint collagen
(arthritis)
rheaumatoid
autoimmune disorder causes inflammation of the synovial membrane, loss of articular cartilage and inc. fibers in joint
(arthritis)
bacterial
blue
ex.) lyme, staphyloccus, streptucoccus, gonnorrhea, mycobaterium
joint hypermobiltiy
(arthropology)
abnormal inc.-run-increase injury
gout
(arthropology)
accumulation of uric acid crystals in small joints causes extreme pain
(arthropology)
torn ACL/meniscus
sudden turn while joint flexed
(arthropology)
sprains
tearing of joint tendons and or ligaments
(arthropology)
osteomyelitis
bacteria infection of bone
(Life-span changes in joints)
fibrous joints
ossify partially or completely
(Life-span changes in joints)
symphysis joints
lose h20 decrease flexibility,
ex)vert. disc
(Life-span changes in joints)
synovial joints
blood to synovial membrane decrease, fibers increase, flexibility of joint decreases (@35yrs)
(Life-span changes in joints)
ligaments
collagens fibers cross link, decrease flex in ligaments
types of muscle
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle
attach bone to bone-rapid contraction and fatigue
-voluntary
smooth muscle
unhollow organs and vessels and dermis-slow contraction and fatigue
cardiac muscle
*heart
rapid contraction and no fatigue
-unvoluntary
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
fascia
attaching bone to muscle
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
tendon
attaching muscle to bone
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
aponeuroses
broad sheets of CT that attach adjoining a muscle and the part it moves
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
epimysium
irregular CT on surface of muscle
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
perimysium
CT that separtates fascicles
(Skeletal muscle Connective tissue anatomy)
endomysium
w/in or inside CT that separates fibers w/in fascicle
CT layers
fascia-epemysium-perimysium-endomysium
muscle hierarchy
whole muscle-faschile-fiber-myofibrils-sarcomeres
whole muscle
sartorius
fascicles
bundles of muscle fiber (cells)
muscle fibers (3)
sarcolema-cell membrane
sarcoplasm-cell cytoplasm
myofibrils-contractile units
path note
torn muscle fibers result in minor muscle strain.
path note
the skeletal muscle protein dystropin prevents tearin of sarcolemma during contraction.
path note
those w/ muscular dystrophy don't produce dystropin
sarcomeres
repeating segments of myosin and actin the actual site of contraction
(sarcomere components)
myosin
-Thick filaments
thick filamenous conractile proteins w/ cross bridges
(sarcomere components)
-thin filaments
actin
protien backbone of thin filaments
(sarcomere components)
tropomyosin
blocks cross-bridge binding sites on actin
(sarcomere components)
troponin
controls position of tropomyosin
(sarcomere components)
sarcoplasmic reticulum and cisternae
modified endoplasmic reticulum w/ inc. levels of Ca ions
(sarcomere banding)
"I" bands
\-rows of actin filaments attached to "Z" line.
(sarcomere banding)
"A"bands
-rows of myosin filaments attached to "Z" line
sliding filament theory
nervous impule to motor neuronthin filaments move twds. cetr. opf sarcomere-muscle shortens
do thick and thin filaments shoren or slide?
slide
(neuromuscular junction)
motor neuron
carries impulses
(neuromuscular junction)
motor end plate
troughlike part of a muscle fiber's sarcolemma that helps for the neuromuscular juntion
(neuromuscular junction)
synaptic cleft
fluid filled space at a scynapse
path note
1+2+3=motor unit
path note-
poliomyelitis
its a viral incection of the motor neuron resulting in paralysis of the infected muscles
(muscle impulse transmission)
1=
1.acetylcholine(ACh)released from motor neuron
(muscle impulse transmission)
2=
ACh recieved by receptors on motor end plate
(muscle impulse transmission)
3=
muscle impulse-(electrical) relayed throughout muscle fiber
(muscle impulse transmission)
4=
muscle contracts
path note
Mayasthenia gravis(MG)
an autoimmune disorder that attacks ACh receptors on muscle cells resulting in muscle weakness and or death
path note
nerve gas blocks ACh receptors causing muscle weakness/death.
Details of contraction
1=
muscle impulse releases Ca from cisternae
Details of contraction
2=
Ca binds to troponin-altering position of tropomyosin and exposing binding sites of actin.
Details of contraction
3=
myosin cross bridges attach to actin and pull
Details of contraction
4=
cross bridges release and process continues as long as ATP, Ca and ACh are present
Relaxation
1=
nervous release oc ACh stops
relaxation
2=
Ca pumps move Ca back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
Relaxation
3=
cross-bridges break and tropomyosin moves back into position
path note-
several hrs. post-mortem, cisternae release Ca initiating contraction: rigor mortis
path note
insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase causeing uncontrolled muscle contraction and death
(Muscle Energetics Overview)
1=
ambient atp is the source of initial contraction and relaxation
2=(Muscle Energetics Overview)
creatine phosphate supplies energy to recycle ADP-ATP
3=(Muscle Energetics Overview)
as ambient ATP and creatine phosphate dec., cells depend upon cellular respiration for ATP
4=(Muscle Energetics Overview)
oxygen for respiriation comes from myoglobin
5=(Muscle Energetics Overview)
if O2 suppy dec., anaerobic resp. begins
Energy source sequence
ambient ATP-creatine phosphate-aerobic respiration-anaerobic respiration
causes of muscle fatigue
(inability to contract)(4)
1.dec. blood flow
2. dec. Ca ion levels due to repeated stimulation
3.perception of fatigue
4. inc. lactic acid lowers pH and stops contraction
path note
cramps occur when electrolytes in the extracellular fluid imbalance causing uncontrolled muscle stimulation
motor unit activation(4)
1=
a muscle fiver alwasys contracts w/same intensity regardless of level of stimulation
2=motor unit activation(4)
all fibers of a motor unit respond @ same time
3=motor unit activation(4)
all motor units of a muscle may not respond @ once.
4=motor unit activation(4)
as stimulation level increase, more motor units respond
summation
(contraction dynamics)
accumulation of effects. Especially those muscular, sensory, or mental stimuli.
tetanus
(contraction dynamics)
smooth, sustained muscle contraction resultinf from high frequency simulation
path note
anaerobic bacteria may cause spasms of skeletal muscle(tetauns) resulting in paralysis + death.
atrophy
reduction in size or wasting awayy an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use
hypertrophy
increase in size of a tissue or organ ind. of the body's general growth-no new muscle fibers formed
multi-unit (smooth muscle)
has indpendent, well innerbvated fibers that lack gap juctions and pacemaker cells
Visceral (single unit)-smooth muscle)
pertaining to an internal organ of the body or the inner part of a structure-contracts as unit