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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of Metabolism?
The sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body
What is Catabolism?
The metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy.
What is Anabolism?
The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue.
Examples include: synthesis of glycogen from glucose, protein from amino acids and construction of new antibodies and new enzymes
What are Nutrients?
Ingested chemicals that are used for the growth, repair, and maintenance of the body
What are Macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
What are Micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals
What is glycolosis
A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy. When glycolysis is linked with other enzyme reactions that use oxygen, more complete breakdown of glucose is possible and more energy is produced.
What is the total energy produced from 1 glucose molecule?
38 ATP
1 NADH = how many atp
3
What is glycogenesis?
The process by which glycogen is formed from glucose. This is an anabolic process that occurs mainly in the liver and muscle when there is extra glucose.
What is glycogenolysis?
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose molecules. This is a catabolic process that occurs mainly in the liver and muscle.
reversal of glycogenesis
What is gluconeogenesis?
The process of making glucose (sugar) from its own breakdown products or from the breakdown products of lipids (fats) or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.
anabolic process
What is lipogenesis?
Synthesis of fat from sugar and amino acids
What is lipolysis?
Hydrolysis of triglyceride into glycerol and fatty acid.
the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. During this process, free fatty acids are released into the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body. Ketones are produced, leading to the process of ketosis. Testing strips are available which can sometimes measure whether or not this process is taking place.
What are fatty acids broken down into through a process of Beta oxidation
acetylCoA
AcetylCoA is taken into the Kreb cycle and converted into what 4 things?
CO2, reduced ATP, NAD and FAD
Glycerol is converted into 2 things in glycolosis. Name them
Glyceraldehyde phosphate, or dihydroxyacetone phosphate
In glycolosis what 3 things are glyceraldehyde phosphate converted into?
reduced NAD, ATP and pyruvic acid
What is lipid anabolism?
constructive metabolic process that produces new lipids from materials such as glycerol, fatty acids, phosphates, etc.

Products include fats (triglycerides), oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.
What is the Catabolism of proteins
Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerisation into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribosomes.