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199 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The trunks and ganglias make up what of the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic chain
_____ come off the ganglion to the spinal intercostal nerve
rami communicantes
Nerve that branches off the sympathetic trunk in the middle of the thoracic cavity and travels down the anterior side of the veterbral column
splanchnic nerve
Touch, pressure, cold, heat and pain are known as _____
cutaneous sensation
Cutaneous receptors for touch include _____ and _____
root hair plexuse
Meissners corpuscles
The sensations for _____ are longer lasting than are senations of touch
pressure
The pressure receptors are called _____
Pacinian corpuscles
The receptors for ____ are the branching ends of dendrites of certain neurons; __________
pain
free nerve endings
Receptors that are located in a joint, muscle or tendon; concerned with locomotion, posture, and muscle tone
propriocetpive sensors (kinesthetic sense)
Where are the receptors for the olfactory senses found?
nasal epithelium
Which _____ on the tongue are shaped like mushrooms
papillae
circumvallate papillae
Which _____ on the tongue are shaped like wave or dagger
papillae
filiform papillae
Which _____ on the tongue appear to have a hand inside
papillae
fungiform papillae
Which papillae are found at the back of the tongue?
circumvallate papillae
Which papillae are most common, found on the majority of the tounge?
filiform papillae
Which papillae are scattered around the tongue?
fungiform
Which two papillae are found together?
filiform
fungiform
Which papillae are the tastebuds located on?
circumvallate
What is the purpose of the eyebrows?
shade the eyes from the sun and prevent perspiration from the forehead from entering the eyes
The eyelid is called the _____
palpebrae
Thin protective mucous membrane lining the eyelidsand covering the anterior surface of the itself
conjunctiva
rows of short hairs that border each eyelid
eyelashes
These components make up the _____
*lacrimal gland *excretory lacrimal ducts *puncta lacrimalia *lacrimal canals *lacrimal sacs *nasolacrimal duct
lacrimal apparatus
superior to the lateral aspect of each eye; produces tears and lysosome
lacrimal gland
iinternal underneath eyelashes; below the gland
excretory lacrimal ducts
medial eye where tears come out
puncta lacrimalia
canals drain into prior to nasolacrimalduct
lacrimal sacs
empties into nasal cavity
nasolacrimal duct
Outer Fibrous Tunic: Posterior: _____
sclera
Outer Fibrous Tunic: Anterior: _____
cornea
Middle Vascular Tunic: Posterior: _____
choroid
Middle Vascular Tunic: Anterior: _____
ciliary body
Inner Nervous Tunic
retina
What seperates the anterior and posterior chambers?
iris
posterior cavity; has clear gel that binds tremendous amounts of water
vitreous body
white of the eye; outer most layer
sclera
anterior; crystal clear window; lets light enter; light bending aparatus
cornea
middle layer; dark brown membrane; nutrient rich layer
choroid
ciliary body is made up of _____ and _____
ciliary processes
ciliary muscles
radiating folds, capillaries secrete fluid and fills anterior cavitity
ciliary processes
interlacing, smooth bundles, controls the lens shape
ciliary muscles
visible color part of the eye
iris
round opening that allows the light to enter
pupil
biconvex, transparent, flexible; changes shape to focus light on retina
lens
_____ is where the optic nerve exists the eye; weak spot, lacks photoreceptors
blind spot (optic disc)
posterior; inferior to the eye; exists the back
optic nerve
inner most layer, made up of 2 layers (pigmented & neural)
retina
what 2 layers make up the retina?
pigmented and neural
attaches ciliary bodies to lens; keep lens from moving
suspensory ligaments
fluid in the posterior chamber
vitreous humor
fluid in the anterior chamber
aqueous humor
area of high cone density; posterior around fovea centralis
macula lutea
minute pit; mostly cones; greated visual acuity
fovea centralis
junction of 2 layers of retina
ora serrata
anterior below cornea; aqueous humor is reabsorbed into this
canal of Schlemm
What is the function of the vitreous humor?
*transmit light
*supports the posterior surfaces of the lends & hold the retina firmly against the pigmented layer
*contributes to intraocular pressure helping to counteract the pulling force of the extrinsic eye muscles
What is the function of the sclera?
protect and shape the eyeball; provides sturdy anchor site for extrinsic eye muscles
What is the function of the cornea?
controls the light that enters the eye
What is the function of the choroid?
absorbs light; nutrient rich layer
What is the function of the ciliary body?
produces aqueous humor; aids in pupil constriction and dialation
What is the function of the retina?
contains photoreceptors to transduce light energy ultimately into vision
Muscle that raises the top eyelid
levator palpebrae
What extrinsic eye muscles goes around the trochlea?
superior oblique muscle
What is the "hook" in the skull that the superior oblique muscle connects to?
trochlea
The pupil will _____ if too much light enters.
close
The pupil will ____ if there is not enough light.
open
What is the metallic blue in animals eyes that assists with night vision?
tapeetum lucidum
What is the function of lens?
changes shape to focus light on the retina
What is meant by visual acuity?
sharpness of vision; tested with Snellen eye chart
What causes glaucoma and why might glaucoma cause blindness?
A build up of interocular fluids which puts pressure on the optic nerve.
What nereve innervates the lateral rectus?
(moves eye laterally)
VI (abducens)
What nereve innervates the superior oblique?
(depresses eye & turns laterally)
IV (trochlear)
What nereve innervates the inferior oblique?
(elevates eye & turns laterally)
III (oculomotor)
What nereve innervates the medial rectus?
(moves eye medially)
III (oculomotor)
What nereve innervates the superior rectus?
(elevates eye)
III (oculomotor)
What nereve innervates the inferior rectus?
(depresses eye)
III (oculomotor)
What nereve innervates the levator palpebrae?
(top eyelid)
VII (facial)
a condition in which images are focused in front, rather than on the retina; nearsightedness
myopia
a condition in which images are focused behind, rather than on the retina;
farsightedness
hyperopia
a condition in which unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens of the eye lead to blurred vision
astigmatism
the bending of a light ray when it meets a different surface at an oblique rather than right angle
refaction
the process of increasing the refractive power of the lens of the eye; focusing
accomodation
*sense of head position in space with respect to gravity
*standing/sitting still
static equilibrium
*sense that reports on angular (rotary) acceleration or deceleration of the head in space
*movement
dynamic equilibrium
most outer part of ear
helix
immediately inside ear
auricle (pinna)
lobe where an ear would be pierced
lobule
medial part of ear on face
tragus
hole going in ear
external auditory meatus
eardrum; vibrates
tympanic cavity
3 ear ossicles
malleus
incus
stapes
links middle ear cavity with nasopharynx; posterior to tympanic cavity
auditory tube
eustachian tube
pharyngotypanic tube
above tympanic membrane/cavity; attic
epitympanic recess
wehre tympanic membrane sists
tympanic cavity
leads to inner ear; stapes sits in
oval window
Inner ear is also called the _____
bony labyrinth
middle mass, canals attach to center of bony labyrinth
vestibule
snail shape
cochlea
3 loops
semicircular canals
canal attaches to vestibule; bump on vestibule
ampulla
What fluid is in the cochlea and semicircular canals?
perilymph
What 2 structures assist in static equilibrium and where are they located?
utricle
saccule
within the vestibule
middle opening that houses the organ of corti; divides the cavity of the bony cochlea into 3 chambers
cochlear duct
inferior to cochlear duct within the cochlea
scala tympani
superior to cochlear duct within the cochlea
scala vestibuli
where cochlea and vestibule meet; at end of scala tympani
round window
nerve from vestibule; superior
vestibular nerve
nerve from cochlea; meets up with vestibular nerve
cochlear nerve
vestibular nerve and cochlear nerve together meet and make the _____
vestibulocochlear nerve
What fluid in in the cochlear ducts and semicircular ducts?
endolymph
What type of fluid is located within the scala tympani and the scala bestibuli?
perilymph
The _____ is the organ of hearing and composed of the tectorial membrane and hair cells.
organ of Corti
The receptors for equilibrium in the ear are the ____, _____ and _____.
saccule
utricle
semicircular ducts
The utricle and saccule are considered to be the sense organ of ______.
static equilibrium
The semicircular ducts maintain ______.
dynamic equilbrium
What is the function of the 3 ossicles?
transmit vibrations to oval window; excite the hearing receptors
What is the function of the organ of Corti?
transduction of sound
What causes poor equilibrium during an ear infection?
build up of fluid on tympanic membrane
What gland explains the body's response to stress?
Adrenal gland
What gland explains the body's regulation of blood glucose levels?
pancreas
What gland explains the body's hormonal control of metabolism?
thyroid
What gland explains the body's regulation of blood Ca++ levels?
parathyroid
gland located anterior neck; butterfly shape
thyroid
gland located on the posterior side of the thyroid
parathyroid
gland that is long and skinny; comes down from neck to top of heart
thymus
gland on top of kidney
adrenal
gland above stomach that looks like chewed up bubble gum
pancreas
two glands located in the brain
pineal gland
pituitary gland
Female Reproductive System:
large bulb shape in center
uterus
Female Reproductive System:
small bulb; houses oocytes
ovaries
Female Reproductive System:
tube connected to fimbriae
uterine (fallopian) tube
Female Reproductive System:
finger like projection on top of ovary; picks up the egg
fimbriae
Male Reproductive System:
round, white piece under penis head
testes
Male Reproductive System:
white, outer most layer on testes
tunica albuginea
Male Reproductive System:
1/2 moon shape on back of testes
epididymis
SLIDE:
center, small dots
developing sperm
SLIDE:
center, empty space
lumen of the seminiferous tubule
SLIDE:
outer edges of round ones
seminiferous tubule
SLIDE:
gaps (triangular/square) between round ones
interstitial cells of Leydig
SLIDE:
most outer layer, white
tunica albuginea
Ovary
most outer layer
germinal epithelium
Ovary
2nd layer from outer
white
tunica albuginea
Ovary
3 layer from outer
stromal cortex
Ovary
Center/middle layer
blood vessels in this area
stromal medulla
List in order the follicles as they develope
*primoridal follicles
*primary follicles
*secondary follicles
*Graafin (mature) follicles
What is the most mature follicle?
Graafin
What does the area the Graafin follicle was in become when it ruptures?
follicular cavity and fluid
If an egg is fertilized it is a _____, if not fertilization takes place, it is a ______
developing ovum
oocyte
After ovulation the follicle becomes a _____
corpus luteum
Degenerating corpus luteum/scar tissue is ______
corpus albicans
The _____ lobe of the pituitary gland releases hormones that control the male and female reproductive cycles.
anterior
In the males, hormones are released to stimulate _______ in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and production of _____, the male sex hormone.
speratogenisis
testosterone
In the female, hormones are released for the development and maintenance of the _____ and the changes that occur duing the monthly reproductive cycles.
eggs
The _____ of the brain secretes _____ that enters the blood vessels leading to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
hypothalamus
ganadotrophin releasing factor (GRF)
After ganadotrophin relasing factor (GRF) is released, the two gonadotropins are released
_____
_____
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing (LH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in males stimulates _____
in females it stimulates the growth of _____ in the ovary
spermatogenesis
primordial follicles
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in males stimulates the Leydig cells to produce _____
in females, it stimulates ovulation of the egg from the ovary and the formation of the _____
testosterone
corpus luteum
Two female hormones secreted by the ovaries are
estrogen
progesterone
______the hormone mainly responsible for the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics
estrogen
____ is the hormone produced primarily by the ovaries which causes changes to occur in the uterine lining during the reproductive cycles
progesterone
The female reproductive cycle or menstrual cycle is characteristic by regular recurring changes in the _____ that culminate in menstral bleeding.
uterine lining
Proliferative Phase is at ____ days
14
Secretory Phase is at _____ days
8-10
Menstrual Phase is at _____ days
3-5
Proliferative Phase
The _____ released _____which stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete _____
hypothalamus
ganadotrophin releasing factor (GRF)
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Proliferative Phase
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates _____ of a follicle
maturation
Proliferative Phase
Follicular cells produce and secrete _____, which cuases the uterine lining (endometrium) to thicken.
estrogen
Proliferative Phase
The anterior pituitary gland secretes a large amount of _____ which stimulates _____, this occurs on day 14 of the cycle.
Luteinizing
ovulation
Secretory Phase
Following ovulation, the follicle is now called a _____, it secretes _____ and _____
corpus luteum
estrogen
progesterone
Secretory Phase
_____ continues to stimulate the uterine lining to develop
_____ stimulates the uterine lining to become more glandular and vascular
Together they inhibit the secretion of FSH and LH
Estrogen
Progesterone
Menstrual Phase
If the egg is not fertilized, the _____ degenerates to become a _____ and no loner secretes estrogen and progesterone
corpus luteum
corpus albicans
Menstrual Phase
As the levels of estrogen and progesterone decline, _____ in the uterine lining constrict, the uterine lining disintegrates and sloughs away producing menstrual flow.
blood vessels
Menstrual Phase
The cycle begins again, when the anterior pituitary gland begins to produce _____.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
During menstration ____ hormone is present.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
During Proliferative or Follicular phase _____ and ____ are the two hormones present.
Estrogen and Luteinizing
In the Secretory phase _____ is the hormone present
progesterone
What hormone(s) does the thyroid secrete?
TH (thyroid hormone)
calcitonin
What hormone(s) does the parathyroid secrete?
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
What hormone(s) does the thymus secrete?
thymosins
What hormone(s) does the pancreas secrete?
glucagon
insulin
What hormone(s) does the adrenal medulla secrete?
epinephrine
norepinephrine
What hormone(s) does the adrenal cortex secrete?
corisol
aldosterone
androgens
What hormone(s) does the pineal gland secrete?
melatonin
What hormone(s) do the testes secrete?
testosterone
What hormone(s) do the ovaries secrete?
estrogen
progesterone
What hormone(s) does the anterior pituitary secrete?
TSH (thyroid stimulation hormone)
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic)
GH (growth hormone)
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
PRL (proactin)
LH (Luteinizing)
What hormone(s) does the posterior pituitary secrete?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
oxytocin (females)
What is the function of the thyroid and its hormones?
control the rate of body metabolism and decrease blood Ca++ with stimulation of Ca salt deposits in the bones
What is the function of the parathyroid and its hormones?
regulator of calcium balance of the blood; stimulates the kidneys to active Vitamin D
What is the function of the thymus and its hormones?
maturation and specialization of T-lymphocytes (t cells); cellular immunity, immune response
What is the function of the pancreas and its hormones?
assist in digestion and control blood glucose levels
What is the function of the adrenal medulla and its hormones?
80% epinephrine; act in conjuction with sympathetic nervous system; fight or flight response, short and long term stress
What is the function of the adrenal cortex and its hormones?
long term stress response
What is the function of the pineal gland and its hormones?
sleep wake cycles; prevent early sexual maturation
What is the function of the testes and their hormones?
promote testosterone production and stimulate sperm production
What is the function of the ovaries and their hormones?
Development of the secondary sex characteristics and to bring about the menstrual cycle
What is the function of the anterior pituitary gland and its hormones?
manufactures and releases many hormones for various functions
What is the function of the posterior pituitary gland and its hormones?
ADH: body water balance
oxytocin: females only; initiates labor contractions and lactation
Where is the pituitary gland located within the brain?
on the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone