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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are the 4 paranasal sinuses located?
Frontal bone, Spenoid bone, ethmoid bone, and Maxillary bone
The nasopharynx is lined with what type of tissue?
Ciliated pseucostratified epithelium
Where is the Pharyngeal Tonsil located and what is the common name for it?
located high on the posterior wall of the nasophayrnx adenoids
The oropharynx is posterior to the oral cavity and opens into it at the archway called the?
Fauces (the throat)
Where do the palatine tonsils lie?
in the lateral walls of the fauces
Where is the Lingual tonsil?
covers the base of the tonque
The larynogopharynx is lined with what type of tissue?
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
What are the 3 functions of the Larynx?
provide open airway, to route air and food to different pathways, and to produce the voice
All Laryngeal cartilages are Hyaline cartilages except for the?
What is the Laryngeal Prominence
the adam apples
What anchors the vocal cords?
The ninth cartilage of the larynx is the
The Epiglottis is made of?
Elastic tissue
What moves the vocal cords?
Arytenoid cartilages
What makes up the false vocal cords?
Vestibular Fold
Below the vocal folds the lining is made of what tissue?
Pseucostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
The vocal folds can act as a
The site where the conducting zone changes to the respiratory zone is the?
Bronchial Tree
What is part of the lowest tracheal cartilage that expands, marking the point where the two primary bronchi branch out?
What are the thin walled air sacs which protrude from the smallest respiratory bronchioles?
What is the alveolar sac?
Cluster of alveoli
What are the two types of cells in the alveoli?
Type I and Type II
Type I alveoli cells are made of what tissue?
Squamous epithelial cells lined up in a single layer
Type II alveoli cells are made of what tissue?
Cuboidal cells that secrete surfactant
What is the fused basal lamina and the capillary and alveoilar epithelium with gas on one side and blood on the other?
Respiratory Membrane
Type I Alveolar cells secrete Angiotensin Converting Enzyme which can do what?
Raise the blood pressure
What organs are contained in the Mediastinum
Heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, espohagus, and trachea
What the surfaces of the lungs that come in close contact with the ribs?
Costal SurfacesHilus
What is the indentation near the mediastinum where the main blood vessels enter and leave the lung and where the primary bronchus begins to branch out?
What is the small concavity on the left lung that molds to accommodate the heart?
Cardiac Notch
The two lobes of the left lung are divided by an?
Oblique Fissure
The three lobes of the right lung are divided by the
Oblique Fissue and the horizontal fissure
What are the two circulations of the lungs?
Pulmonary circulation and the bronchial circulation
This lung circulation is responsible for gas exchange
pulmonary circulation
This lung circulation is responsible for providing blood to the lung tissue itself
Bronchial circulation
What color is the right pulmmanary vein?
Red, they carry oxygen rich blood to the heart from the lungs
This pleura covers the thoracic wall and the superior surface of the diaphragm, lateral walls of the mediastinum
Parietal Pleura
This pleura covers the external lung surface, dipping into the fissures
Visceral pleura
Wah fills the pleural cavity?
Pleural fluid
Inflammation of the pleura is called?
An excessive collection of fluid in the pleural sapce is called a?
Pleural effusion
The two phases of breathing are ?
Inspiration and Expiration
The pressure in the alveoli (P-pul)
Intrapulmonary Pressure
The pressure in the pleural cavity (P-ip)
Intrapleural Pressure
What is the amount of P-ip?
-4mm Hg less than P-Pul if not the lungs would collapse
Partial or complete collapse of lung tissue is called?
Air in the intrapleural space is a
When the scalenes,m sternocleidomastoid and the pectoralis minor raise the ribs more and increase the tial volume is calle
Deep Inspiration
What is the normal Tidal Volume?
500 mL
The involves contraction of the abdominal wall muscles and the Internal intercostals
Forced Expiration
What is friction or drag in the respiratory passageways?
Airway Resistance
The distensibility or "stretch-ability" of lungs is called?
The more a lung expands for a given pressure, the?
Greater its compliance
The amount of air moved into and out of the lungs in quiet breathing is called?
Tidal Volume ave is 500 mL
The amount of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond the tidal volume is ?
Inspiratory reserve volume ave 3100 mL in males
The amount of air that can be evacuated or FORCED OUT after a tidal expiration is ?
Expiratory Reserve volume ave is 1200 mL for males
The amount of air left in the lungs after the most strenouse expiration?
Residual Volume ave is 1200 mL in males
The total amount of exchangeable air (sum of the tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + the expiatory reserve volume is called the?
Vital Capacity ave is 4800 mL in males
The toal amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration (tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume) is called?
Inspiratory Capacity ave is 3600 mL for males
The amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration, it equals the residual volume + the expiratory reserve volume?
Functional Residual Capacity Ave is 2400 mL in males
The sume of all lung volumes
6000 mL in males
The air that fills the conducting respiratory passagesways and does not contribute to gas exchange is called the ?
Anatomical Dead space usually 150 mL
Alveoli that do not function are called?
Alveolar Dead Space
Alveolar dead space + Anatomical dead space = ?
Total Dead Space
What instrument is used for measure breathing
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas
Dalton's law of partial pressures
When a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gase will dissolve in the liquid in proportion ot its partial pressure
Henry's Law
What is the most potent chemical controlling respiration?
Three functions of Nervous system are
Sensory input, Integration , and motor output
Two main parts of the Nervous System are
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
This consist of the brain and the spinal cord, which occupy the dorsal body cavity
The Central Nervous System
This is the part of the nervous system outside the central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous system
These carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
Spinal nerves
These carry impulses to and from the brain
Cranial nerves
The PNS has two subdivisions
The Afferent (Sensory) and Efferent (Motor)
Sensory (afferent) divsion is composed of
Somatic afferent fibers and visceral afferent fibers, carry impulses towards the CNS
Somatic afferent fibers carry impules from where to the CNS?
from skin muscles and joints to CNS
Visceral afferent fibers carry impules from where to the CNS?
Visceral organs
Efferent (motor) divsion is composed of
Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System, transmits from the CNS to the effector organs
Somatic Nervous system carry impules from the CNS to where?
Axon from CNS to skeletal muscle, this is voluntary control
Autonomic Nervous system carry impules from the CNS to where?
axons to smooth muscle, cardiac muscles and glands Involantary control
Sympathetic Autnomic Nervous system is responsable for
(flight or fight response)
ParaSympathetic Autnomic Nervous system is responsable for
Two main types of cells in the CNS
Supporting cells (Neuroglia) and Neurons
Small cells that surround and wrap the neurons are called
Excitable nerve cells that transmit electrical signals
Neuroglia are also known as
Where are the six types of glial cells located
4 in the CNS and 2 in the PNS
the astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes are all located in the
Neuroglia (aka glial cells) provide a supportive scaffolding for?
Glial cells outnumber neurons _____ in the CNS
Glial cells make up ___ of the mass of the brain
These are the most abundant and most versatile glial cell
These glial cells are involved in the chemical blood brain barrier
These glial cells are Shaped like delicate branching sea anemones (star shaped)
These glial cells migrate toward damaged neurons, and transform inton macrophages that then phagocytize the neurons or bacteria or viruses
These glial cells are the only form of the immune system present in the CNS
These glial cells line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord, forming a semi permeable barrier between the CSF and the tissues
Ependymal Cells
These glial cells have branches like astrocytes but with fewer processes
These glial cells line up along the thicker neuron fibers in the CNS producing Myelin Sheaths
What part of the oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheaths?
What are the two types neuroglia in the PNS?
Satellite cells and Schwann cells
These PNS neuroglia surround the neuron cell bodies
Satellite cells
These PNS neuroglia surround the larger nerve fibers in the PNS and form myelin sheaths around them
Schwann cells
A neuron is a ?
nerve cell
Special characteristics of Nerve cells
conduct nerve impulses, have extrene longevity (100 yrs), they are usually amitotic (can't divide) , and have a very high metabolic rate so require a lot of O2 and Glucose
Exceptions to the amitotic rule are olfactory epithelium and some hippocampal regions which contain?
Stem cells that can produce new neurons throughout life
The neuron cell body is a ?
Transparent round nucleus with a large nucleolus
The cell body is called the ____ and is a major biosynthetic center of the neruron?
Soma or perikaryon
Neuron Cell bodies do not contain centrioles why?
they do not divide
What are the three mucosal covered projections on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?
Nasal Conchae
What are cluster of cell bodies in the PNS called?
Bundles of processes in the CNS are called?
Bundles of processes in the PNS are called?
What lies between motor and sensory neurons, most of the cells in the CNS, make up 99% of the neurons in the body, most are multipolar and function to intergrate neural signals
Interneurons (Association Neurons)
Outside the cell what balandes the NA+?
Inside the cell the negatively charged proteins balnace the ?
This plays the most important role in generation of the membrane potential?
What first ejects 3 Na+ from the cell and tehn transports 2 K+ back into the cell?
ATP-driven sodium/potassium pump
Phase 1 of the AP when the voltage gated channels are closed is called? (small amounts of K+ leak out)
the resting state
Phase 2 of the AP is?
Depolarizing Phase
Phase 3 of the AP is?
the repolarizing phase
If an axon is stimulated in the middle (at the nodes of Ranvier) the nerve impulse will move?
Away in all directions
The rate of impulse speed depends on Two factors?
Axon Diameter and degree of myelination