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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Regional Anatomy
Study of structures in a particular area of the body
Systemic Anatomy
Study of anatomy based on systems
Surface Anatomy
How internal structures relate to the overlying skin
Microscopic Anatomy
includes cytology and histology
Developmental Anatomy
Changes in body growth
Embryology
Study of the formation of the newborn
Pathologic Anatomy
Studies changes caused by disease
Radiographic Anatomy
Structures seen by xray
Molecular Biology
Study of biology at the smallest level
4 main tissue types
Epithelial, muscle, connective and nervous
11 organ systems
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous,endocrine, lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive
Language of anatomy is based on
Latin roots and universally accepted
Anatomical Position
Feet slightly spread with hands open at sides
Supine Postion
lying flat on the back
Prone Postion
lying face down
Gross Anatomy
The study of body structures visible to the naked eye
Mesentery
Connective tissue that holds the intestines up
Pleural
Lining of the lungs
Peritoneum
lines the internal cavity
Axial part
Head, neck and trunk
Appendicular Part
legs and arms and their attachements to the Axial
Axillary
in the armpit
Brachial
the arm
Buccal
the cheek
Carpal
wrist
Cervical
neck
coxal
hip
crural
leg
Digital
Fingers or toes
Femoral
thigh
Frontal
Forehead
Hallux
Big toe
Inguinal
groin
Mammary
breast
Mental
chin
Nasal
Nose
Oral
Mouth
Orbital
eye socket
Palmar
palms of hands
Patellar
knee cap
Pedal
foot
Pelvic
Bony sturctures and the area surrounding the female genitalia
Peroneal (Fibular)
The side of the leg
Pollex
thumb
Pubic
genital region
Sternal
breastbone
Tarsal
ankle
Thoracic
Chest
Umbilical
navel
Acromial
the shoulder
Calcaneal
heel of the foot
Cephalic
head
Dorsum
back
Gluteal
buttocks
Lumbar
the back between the hips and the ribs
Manus
hand
Occipital
the back of the head or base of the skull
Olecranel
back of the elbow
Otic
ear
Perineal
the place between the vagina or the penis and the anus
Plantar
sole of the foot
Popliteal
back of the knee
Sacral
the lowest portion of the spine between the hips
Scapular
the shoulder blade
Sural
Calf or back of leg
Vertebral
the spinal column
Superior
above
Inferior
below
Anterior
In front of
Posterior
in back of
Medial
Closer to the midline
Lateral
Away from the midline
Cephalad (cranial)
toward the head
Caudal
Toward the tail or tailbone
Dorsal
the back side
Ventral
the anteror or belly side
Proximal
close to the trunk of the body
Distal
Further from the trunk of the body
Superficial
at the surface
Deep
Away from the surface
Section
cut through a tissue or body
Plane
orientation of an imaginary line drawn through a tissue, body or organ
Sagittal plane
runs up and down, divides the body into right and left parts
Midline sagittal or median plane
down the center
Parasagittal
down the body off center
Frontal Plane (coronal plane)
runs up and down dividing the body into front and back
Transverse plane (cross section)
horizontal cut which divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Thoracic cavity
Ventral, contains heart and lungs and mediastinum
Mediastinum
Area between the heart and lungs
Abominopelvic cavity
usually separated into the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Pelvic Cavity
Ventral-bony pelvic, reproductive organs, bladder and rectum
Dorsal Cavity
Back of the body-contains the Cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity
Ventral Cavity
front of body contains the Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Cranial cavity
Dorsal contents of the skull
Vertebral cavity
dorsal spinal column
Abdominal Cavity
Ventral usually divieded into quadrants
Minor Body Cavities
Oral, Nasal, Orbital, Middle ear, Synovial Cavities.
Synovial Cavities
joints
Nine regions of Abdomen
Hypochondirac/epigastric/hypochondriac---Lumbar/umbilical/lumbaf---iliac/hypogastric/iliac
iliac
also called inguinal region
Visceral Serosa
Body Membrans covers the body organs
Serous Menmbrane
lines the body cavities
Parietal serose
Covers the body walls
Peritoneum
lining of the abdomen
Pleura
lining of the lungs
Right Hypochondriac region organs
liver, gallbladder
Right Lumbar region organs
Ascending colon of large intestine
Right iliac (inguinal) region organs
cecum
Epigastric regions organs
stomach
Umbilical region organs
Transverse colon of large intestine, small intestine,
Hypogastric (pubic region) organs
Appendix, urinary bladder
Left Hypochondriac region organs
Diaphragm,
Left Lumbar region organs
Descending colon of the large intestine
Left iliac (inguinal) region organs
Initial part of sigmoid colon
Axial region
Head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum
Trunk region
thorax, abdomen, pelvis, perineum
Appendicular region
Limbs
Thymus
irregular mass of glandular tissue overlaying the heart
Heart
Medial oval sturcture enclosed within the pericardium (serious membrane sac)
Lungs
flanking the heart of either side
Trachea
tubelike "windpipe" running medially down the throat; part of the respiratory system
Bronchi
Two passageways that plunge laterally into the tissue of the two lungs
Esophagus
A food chute; the part of the digestive system that transports food from the pharynex (throat) to the stomach
Diaphragm
A thin muscle attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage; separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Stomach
A curved organ important in food digestion and temporary food storage
Small intestine
Connected to the stomach and ending just before the saclike cecum
Large intestine
A large muscular tube connected to the small intestine and ending at the anus
Cecum
The initial portion of the large intestine
Rectum
Terminal part of the large intestine; continuous with the anal canal
Anus
The opening of the digestive tract (through the anal canal) to the exterior
Mesentery
An apronlike serous membrane; suspends many of the difestive organs in the abdominal cavity.
Pancreas
A diffuse gland; rests dorsla to and in the mesentery between the first portion of the small intestine and the stomach
Spleen
A dark red organ curving around the left lateral side of the stomach; considered part of the lymphatic system and often called the red blood cell graveyard.
Liver
Large and brownish red; the most superior organ in the abdominal cavity, directly beneath the diaphragm
Kidneys
Bean-shaped organs; retroperitoneal
Adrenal glands
Large endocrine glands that sit astride the superior margin of each kidney; considered part of the endocrine system
Ureter
Tube running from the indented region of a kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
The sac that serves as a reservoir for urine
Inferior vena cava
The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the lower regions of the body
Descending aorta
Deep to the inferior vena cave; the largeest artery of the body; carries blood away from the heart down the midline of the body