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62 Cards in this Set

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Jacquerie
-French peasant rebellions
-1358
-Caused by a rise in taxes to cover the costs of the Hundred Years' War
English Peasant Rebellions
-1381
-Led by John Ball, a secular priest, and Watt Tyler, a journeyman
Treaty of Troyes
-1420
-Disinherited the legitimate heir to the French throne and proclaimed Henry V the successor to Charles VI
-Both died in 1422, infant Henry VI of England proclaimed in Paris to be king of both France and England
Black Death
-Appeared in Sicily in 1347
-By early 15th c. western Europe lost a/b 2/5 of population
Unum Sanctam
-Declaration that papal power trumped secular power
-Desperate act of a besieged papacy
-Boniface VIII- conflict with French king Philip IV
Avignon Papacy
-1309-1377
-Moved to Avignon for safety
-Ultimately led to Great Schism
Lollards
-Inspired by writings of John Wycliffe
-Preached in the vernacular, translated Holy Scripture, championed clerical poverty
-Became capital offense in England in 1401
Hussites
-Influenced by Wycliffe, led by Huss
-Critical of superstitious practices
-Eucharist = ordinance, not sacriment
-Huss burned at stake in 1415
Great Schism
-1378
-two popes- one Italian, one French
-Pope Gregory XI- returned to Rome
-Ended w/ Council of Constance-1417
Humanism
-Rhetoric, Latin/Greek classics, ancient Church Fathers,
-studia humanitis- liberal arts program
Platonism
-Revival of interest in works of Plato
-Greek scholars fleeing fall of Constantinope to Turks- 1453
-Supported by Cosimo de' Medici
Mannerism
-New style after High Renaissance painting
-Reaction a/g simplicity/symmetry
-Tintoretto, El Greco
Estates General
-Representative assembly of France
-Did not meet at all from 1484-1580
-Little power compared to monarchy
Taille
-French direct tax on the peasantry
-Raised- ontributed to Jacquerie
Court of Star Chamber
-Created by Henry VII
-1487
-Intended to end perversion of English justice by powerful nobles
-Led to more equitable court system
Grandi
-Rich nobles and merchants who traditionally ruled Florence
Popolo grosso
-Rich merchant class of Florence
-Began to challenge the old rich in late 13th/early 14th centuries
Middle-Burgher ranks
-Middle class of Florence
-Took side of new rich
Popolo minuto
-Florence's "little people"
-lower classes
Ciompi Revolt
-1378
-Revolt of the poor in Florence
-Led to instability which returned with Cosimo de Medici, 1434
Condottiere
-Italian military brokers who provided despots w/ mercenary armies
Enclosure movement
-English process of turning common land into private land
-Forced serfs off of land and encouraged immigration to America
Aztecs
-1428- began empire in Valley of Mexico
-Fell to Cortes and native allies in 1521
-Harsh to conquered people- Cortes found willing allies
Incas
-Empire in Peru
-Fell to Pizarro in 1533
-Disease
War of the Roses
- Between house of York and House of Lancaster
-1455-1485
-Richard IIIusurped throne from his nephew, Henry Tudor, and ruled as Henry VII
Reichstag
-Imperial diet founded in 15th c.
-Represented imperial free German states
Black Legend
-Idea that Spanish treatment of Native Americans was inhumane
-writings of Las Casas
Charles VII of France
-Dauphin
-Disinherited by Treaty of Troyes
Joan of Arc
-Peasant who broke the siege of Orleans
-Captured by the Burgundians in 1430
-Executed by the inquisition in 1431
-Regained France for Charles VII
Jacob Burckhardt
-Wrote "Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" (1860)
-Argued that Renaissance was an extreme break from the Middle Ages
Marsilius of Padua
-"Defensor Pacis" = "In Defense of Peace"
-Modern sovereignty, anticlerical, separation of church and state
Jacques Coeur
-Independent merchant banker
-Helped France develop a strong economy
Louis XI
-Made France a great power, successfully harnessed the nobility, expanded trade and industry
Ferdinand and Isabella
-King of Aragon and queen of Castille
-Married in 1469
-United two kingdoms
-Christianization of all of Spain
Columbus
-Born in Genoa
-Went to navigator-training school in Portugal
-Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella
-Landed in San Salvador
Charles V
-Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain
-Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella
-Son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad
-"Empire in which the sun does not set"
Savonarola
-Radical Dominican preacher
-Convinced Florentines that Charles VIII's arrival was a long-delayed and fully justified divine vengeance on their immorality
-Virtual rule over Florence for 4 years after Charles's departure
Borgia
-Family of pope Alexander VI
-Most corrupt pope ever
Petrarch
-Father of Humanism
Dante
-Vita Nuova
-Divine Comedy
Boccaccio
-Decameron
-Stinging social commentary/sympathetic look at human behavior
Mirandola
-Supervised Florentine Platonic Academy
-"Oration on the Dignity of Man"- 1486
-Humans = only creatures with freedom to be whatever they chose- could be pigs or angels
Giotto
-Father of Renaissance painting
Donatello
-Sculptor that portrayed the world around him more literally and naturally
Da Vinci
-"Renaissance man"
-Mona lisa
-Vetruvian Man
Raphael
-"Frescoe of "The School of Athens"
Michelangelo
-David- harmony, symmetry, proportion
-Glorification of human form
Pope Julius II
-Opponent of Borgia family
-"warrior pope"
-Brought Renaissance papacy to peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue; fully secured Papal States
Machiavelli
-"The Prince"
-Better to be feared than loved
Pope John XXII
-Avignon Pope
-Theory that the dead did not see God until the Last Judgment
Castiglione
-"Book of the Courtier"
-Italian humanism
-Successful courtier = knowledge of ancient languages, history, athletic, military, musical skills; good manners and high moral character
Valla
-"Elegances of the Latin Language"
-pointed out errors in Latin Vulgate
-Supported church, but his discoveries were used to undermine it
Masaccio
-Italian Renaissance Painter
-One of first to use scientific perspective and realism
Titian
-Renaissance painter
-Leader of 16th c. Venetian school
-Deep interest in colors
Piers the Plowman
-Written by William Langland
-Allegory about a peasant guiding the author to truth
Chaucer
-English poet, philosopher, courtier, diplomat
-Father of English Literature
-"Canterbury Tales"
Fuggers
-Banking family from Augsburg
-Close connections to the Hapsburgs
Botticelli
-Italian Renaissance painter, favorite of Lorenzo the Magnificent
-"The Birth of Venus," "Primavera"
Brueghel
-Flemish Renaissance painter
-Landscapes and peasant scenes
Durer
-German painter, woodcarver, engraver, mathematician
Erasmus
-Prince of the Humanists- northern
-Goal- to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue w/ Christian ideals of love and piety
Thomas More
-Friend of Erasmus
-Wrote Utopia
-One of Henry VIII's diplimats
-Repudated Act of Supremacy, and refused to recognize king's marriage to Anne Boleyn
-Executed in 1535